The Public–Private Divide in Flood Management
SHIFTS IN THE PUBLIC-PRIVATE DIVIDE IN FLOOD MANAGEMENT (pp. 499-512)
aRadboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen School of Management, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; bScientific Council for Government Policy, The Hague, The Netherlands, and Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Technology Policy and Management, The Netherlands
Contact: Sander Meijerink, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Flood management is changing in many countries across the globe. In spite of the different institutional paths taken in these countries, various common shifts in the governance arrangements for flood management can be observed, most notably decentralization and the increasing influence of the private sector. The central argument of this paper is that a new conceptualization of the public-private divide in flood management, which is based on the dimensions of collectivity and visibility, is helpful in understanding and judging these shifts. Modern flood risk management asks for new cooperative arrangements between state, market and civil society in which the visibility and collectivity dimensions are reunited.
FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT IN ENGLAND: A CHANGING LANDSCAPE OF RISK RESPONSIBILITY? (pp. 513-525)
Contact: Clare L. Johnson, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Flood risk management (FRM) in England is undergoing a major paradigm shift as it moves from an ideology dominated by flood defence to one in which the management of all floods, their probabilities and consequences is now of central concern. This change has led to searching questions both within government, and more widely, concerning the appropriate division of responsibility between the state and its citizens, the appropriate balance between structural and non-structural risk management options, and the ‘fitness for purpose’ of the current appraisal, prioritization and decision-making processes. In this paper, the authors examine how a desire to ‘make space for water’ in England has the potential to alter the division of responsibility between the public and private domain, presenting new opportunities, potential barriers and possible solutions.
RISK CREATION, BEARING AND SHARING ON AUSTRALIAN FLOODPLAINS (pp. 527-540)
Abstract: The fundamental characteristic of flood risk management in contemporary Australia is the tension between private sector land development interests and their allies who create the risk and the quite different groups, largely comprising the public sector, households and small businesses, who bear the main consequences. Flooded businesses may suffer losses, but commerce profits from the event and subsequent reconstruction. Elements of public flood risk management such as warning, emergency response and recovery attempt to reduce vulnerability. In summary: there is a very uneven distribution of risks and benefits, with the public sector bearing most of the risk, while the private sector gains most of the benefits. This may be good for the national economy, but does not provide incentives for flood risk reduction.
PRIVATE AND PUBLIC RESPONSES TO FLOOD RISKS (pp. 541-553)
aCivil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; bInstitute for Water Resources, US Army Corps of Engineers, Davis, CA, USA; cInstitute for Water Resources, US Army Corps of Engineers, Alexandria, VA, USA
Contact: Daniel P. Loucks, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: People continue to build and live on land subject to flooding. People do this knowing that their property may be flooded, if not totally destroyed, by raging waters and accompanying debris, however, many do not fully understand and appreciate that risk. As a result, each year on average observes increasing property damage, more lives being threatened and increased degradation of floodplain ecological functions. It can be argued that with regard to floodplain development governmental policies are not preventing it, indeed, they may be facilitating it.
HOUSEHOLDS’ PERCEIVED RESPONSIBILITIES IN FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE NETHERLANDS (pp. 555-565)
Contact: Teun Terpstra, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Flood risk management in the Netherlands is on the eve of shifting primarily from prevention towards risk management, including disaster preparedness and response and citizen participation. This study explores Dutch households’ perceived responsibility for taking private protection measures. Survey results (n ¼ 658) indicate that flood risk perception is low, that 73% of the respondents regard the government as primarily responsible for protection against flood damage, but that about 50% viewed disaster preparedness as an equal responsibility between themselves and the government. Thus, a substantial part of the public may have an open attitude to communication about disaster preparation measures. Dilemmas for increasing citizen participation are discussed.
EMERGENCY RIVER STORAGE IN THE OOIJ POLDER—A BRIDGE TOO FAR? FORMS OF PARTICIPATION IN FLOOD PREPAREDNESS POLICY (pp. 567-582)
Abstract: Disaster policy tends to be in the domain of top-down security governance. However, international organizations are calling for more ‘horizontal’, participatory forms of planning for flood preparedness together with local stakeholders. But what modality of public involvement do they mean? A case study of decision making on emergency flood storage in the Netherlands, proposed in 2000, illustrates a rift over the degree of public consultation in decisions for emergency flood storage in an extreme event, concluding that the course of action taken was perhaps a ‘missed opportunity’. The analysis leads to a typology and discussion of modalities of local participation in disaster governance.
TOWARDS A COMPARISON OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INSURANCE RESPONSES TO FLOODING RISKS (pp. 583-592)
Abstract: This paper considers the problems of flood risks in the context of public and private insurance responses with a particular focus on residential property. The role and take-up of insurance is demonstrated with examples from OECD countries. The importance of insurance as a tool to implement sustainable flood management policies is highlighted and the ways in which insurance has influenced local authorities in Scotland is described.
COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF RESTORING BURIGANGA RIVER, BANGLADESH (pp. 593-607)
Abstract: The focus of this paper is to perform a cost-benefit analysis to determine the economic efficiency of the restoration of a dying river in Bangladesh, namely the Buriganga River. The benefits of the restoration programme are derived by using market data and employing benefit transfer and contingent valuation techniques. The values generated by this approach are integrated into the framework of a cost-benefit analysis, which showed a benefit-cost ratio of 4.35. This demonstrates that the restoration of dying rivers in developing countries is not only an environmental imperative, but is also socially and economically justifiable.
EVALUATION AND APPLICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS FOR RUNNING WATERS IN SLOVENIA (pp. 609-619)
aLimnos, Water Ecology Group, Ljubljana, Slovenia; bInstitute for Water of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia; cInstitute of Science and Environment, University of Worcester, Worcester, UK
Contact: Natasa Smolar-Zvanut, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Water use invariably results in major impacts on river flows. Environmental Flows (EF) are defined as the quantity and quality of water that is needed to preserve the structure and the function of the river and riparian zone ecosystem and sufficient quantity of water to enable the survival and reproduction of aquatic organisms in different hydraulic habitats. This paper describes the criteria and methods used to determine EF and experiences with their application in Slovenia. The diversity of running waters of Slovenia demand special treatment and determination of EF for each individual section of the river system. Using hydrological, morphological and ecological criteria, two different approaches are used for the determination of EF in Slovenia, a rapid assessment method and a detailed assessment method. For both methods, data are then analyzed by an expert panel in order to determine an EF. Since 1994, more than 180 study sites have been examined for research and application of EF in Slovenia. Determination of EF for existing users has prioritized their water requirements so they can remain economically viable. Where new schemes are proposed, there has been much greater scope to prioritize ecosystem requirements. EF determination is receiving growing attention and will continue to increase in importance, driven by research that aids our understanding of flow-biota relationships and recent environmental policy and legislation at both the national and European level.
IRRIGATION WATER VALUE AT SMALL-SCALE SCHEMES: EVIDENCE FROM THE NORTH WEST PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA (pp. 621-633)
aDepartment of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University; bCIRAD, UMR G Eau and Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA), University of Pretoria, South Africa; cCIRAD, UMR G Eau and Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand; dDepartment of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University
Contact: Stijn Speelman, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Insight into the value of water is essential to support policy decision making about investments in the water sector, efficient allocation of water and water pricing. However, information on irrigation water values at small-scale schemes is scarce and in general little attention is paid to the determinants of these values. In this study values are calculated for small-scale irrigation schemes in the North West Province of South Africa, using the residual imputation method. An average water value of 0.188US$/m3, in line with expectations for vegetable crops, was found. Furthermore, the crop choice and the irrigation scheme design and institutional setting were shown to significantly influence the water value, whilst individual characteristics of farmers proved to be less important.
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF WATER RESOURCES IN GREECE (pp. 635-649)
Abstract: Greece is characterized by special geomorphologic structure, the result of which is a variety of climatic conditions and the division of the area into a plethora of basins and a number of water districts. This study aims to analyze the climatic conditions, as well as of the availability of water resources across the country. The air temperature and rainfall data of the time period 1965–95 were acquired from 40 meteorological stations and processed on a monthly and annual basis. The spatial distribution of the aforementioned climatic variables, as well as of the climatic indices of Johansson Continentality and De Martonne Aridity was derived. The results show that the Pindos mountain range is a major contributing factor in the climatic variety, dividing the country into windward, high precipitation western areas and leeward, low precipitation eastern areas. This precipitation pattern affects directly the availability of water resources, which was briefly analyzed in each water district.
OECD Forum 2008: Some Personal Reflections
Asit K. Biswas and Cecilia Tortajada
Management of Transboundary Rivers and Lakes, edited by Olli Varis, Cecilia Tortajada and Asit K Biswas, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 2008