AN OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT (pp. 521-528)
David B. Brooks, Friends of the Earth Canada, Ontario, Canada
Abstract: An operational definition of water demand management is proposed with five components: (1) reducing the quantity or quality of water required to accomplish a specific task; (2) adjusting the nature of the task so it can be accomplished with less water or lower quality water; (3) reducing losses in movement from source through use to disposal; (4) shifting time of use to off-peak periods; and (5) increasing the ability of the system to operate during droughts. This definition brings out the drivers of water saving and permits the tracking of gains by the source of the saving. It is applicable to nations at different stages of economic development. It also shows how goals of greater water use efficiency are linked to those of equity, environmental protection and public participation. Taken together, these goals make water demand management less a set of techniques than a concept of governance.
WHAT ARE THE ECONOMIC HEALTH COSTS OF NON-ACTION IN CONTROLLING TOXIC WATER POLLUTION? (pp. 529-514)
K. William Easter and Yoshifumi Konishi, Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, St Paul, USA
Contact: K. William Easter, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: This paper identifies information that may be important in determining the benefits of preventing toxic water contamination (or equivalent cost of non-action) when a given toxification occurs. It attempts to identify information and behaviour issues that need to be considered when benefits are estimated and weighed against the costs of removing toxins. This paper also provides ‘scenarios’ for three toxic pollutants that are found in water bodies. The paper makes use of two alternatives, one for developing countries and the other for developed countries, to demonstrate, with specific examples of arsenic, mercury and atrazine, how benefit estimates and control policies vary with different assumptions concerning behaviour/information and type of chemical contamination.
SELF-CREATED RULES AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES: THE CASE OF WATER USERS’ ASSOCIATIONS ON WAGHAD CANAL IN MAHARASHTRA, INDIA (pp. 543-559)
Ganesh B. Keremane and Jennifer Mckay, Centre for Comparative Water Policies and Laws, School of Commerce, Division of Business, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
Contact: Ganesh B. Keremane, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: In India, community participation is receiving much importance in water planning and management. However, in the absence of effective institutional arrangements to govern the allocation and maintenance activities, it is more likely that such participation will fail to achieve the desired results. Therefore, the present study is an attempt to assess the self-created rules adopted by two Water Users’ Associations (WUAs) in Maharashtra State, India, to govern the use and distribution of water resources. The paper describes the perception of the members with regard to some of these self-created rules. It was observed that both the WUAs studied had effectively enforced these rules, leading to improved water management and efficient conflict management process. Although preliminary, the findings indicate scope for designing strategies to achieve the objective of forming a federation –better planning and distribution of water among WUAs.
PARTICIPATION: RHETORIC AND REALITY. THE IMPORTANCE OF UNDERSTANDING STAKEHOLDERS BASED ON A CASE STUDY IN UPPER EAST GHANA (pp. 561-573)
Martine Poolman and Nick Van De Giesen, Water Resources Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Contact: Martine Poolman, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Based on the views of a number of stakeholders involved in the development of small reservoir systems in the Upper East Region of Ghana in West Africa, this paper examines the importance of understanding the stakeholders whom the international development community wants to include in its participatory approaches. The paper also aims to show that terms such as ‘participation’, ‘participatory approach’ and ‘participatory planning’ are often used in project proposals, but that in reality the extent to which stakeholders are actually able to participate in projects is limited. This limitation is often due to a lack of understanding by the project organization of the interests and views of the stakeholders, which are then not incorporated in the project process. A stakeholder analysis could provide more insight in the interests, goals and views of all stakeholders involved in a project, as well as in the differences between the stakeholders. In the development of water resources, the long-term sustainability of a project’s work is dependent on the manner in which relevant (often local) stakeholders continue the process after the official time of the project has ended. Thus, since the project is dependent on the involvement of relevant stakeholders, the formulation of adequate and appropriate forms of stakeholder engagement that will ensure information exchange and participation is essential. However, as the case study shows, such analyses were not always carried out, thus leading to a number of problems with project implementation and also with transplantation from one region, district or community to another.
ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF TRADITIONAL QANATS IN SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (pp. 575-588)
Homayoun Motieea, Edward Mcbeanb, Ali Semsartc, Bahram Gharabaghib and Vahid Ghomashchid
aWater and Power University of Technology, Tehran, Iran; bUniversity of Guelph, Canada; cWater Resources Company, Yazd, Iran; dUniversity of Art, Tehran, Iran
Contact: Homayoun Motiee, e-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Abstract: Qanats (Kanats) have been an ancient, sustainable system facilitating the harvesting of water for centuries in Iran, and more than 34 additional countries of the world. These subterranean channels have been used for the transference of snowmelt water from the mountainous terrain for thousands of years. Agricultural, industrial and urban demands for fresh water have brought about increasing demands for water, the elixir of life. In response, the harvesting of water via deep groundwater wells throughout arid zones has disturbed the aquifers, and resulted in the abandonment of some qanats. Qanats in the province of Yazd City are witnessing this depletion. This paper introduces qanats, objectives causing their creation, construction materials, locations and their importance in different times, as well as their present role in Iran. Further, current qualitative and quantitative analyses of the qanats in Tehran are identified.
FARMERS’ PERCEPTION OF WATER MANAGEMENT UNDER DROUGHT CONDITIONS IN THE UPPER AWASH BASIN, ETHIOPIA (pp. 589-602)
Chemeda Edossa Desalegna, Mukand Singh Babela, Ashim Das Guptaa, Bekele Awulachew Seleshib and Douglas Merreyc
aAsian Institute of Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Khlong Luang, Pathumthani, Thailand; bInternational Water Management Institute (IWMI) (ILRI-Ethiopia Campus), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; cIWMI, Africa Regional Office, Silverton, South Africa
Contact: Desalegn Chemeda Edossa, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: A survey was conducted in the Upper Awash River Basin, Ethiopia, to assess agricultural water management practices adopted by the farmers under drought conditions. The results show that on average drought prevails in the area once every two years and causes damage to both crops and livestock. Consequently, under such drought conditions, the farming communities have adopted various coping strategies and important among them are the sale of labour and sale of livestock and their products. The survey results also reveal that farmers in the rainfed agriculture areas practise mainly contour bunding to mitigate drought impacts.
COOPERATION IN A HYDRO-GEOLOGIC COMMONS: NEW INSTITUTIONS AND PRICING TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABILITY AND SECURITY (pp. 603-614)
Edna Loehmana and Nir Beckerb
aDepartment of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, USA; bDepartment of Economics and Management, Tel-Hai College, NRERC, Haifa University, Israel
Contact: Nir Becker, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Current water use in the areas of Israel, Gaza, West Bank and Jordan is not consistent with a sustainable water supply: growing demands relative to supplies threaten underground aquifers, and water quality problems diminish the health and welfare of current residents and impair future water supplies. A hydro-geologic system can be viewed as a commons that provides a stream of benefits to an entire geographic area over time. Sustainability requires the design of new institutions with appropriate boundaries and rules. This paper proposes a regional cooperative management system, combining aspects of a regional utility and a joint commission, which would use price incentives for management purposes. The non-profit regional water utility would establish limits on water use, determine water prices and make investments from system revenues. For efficiency, surface water, groundwater and recovered water of the same quality should receive the same price. Withdrawal limits based on sustainability would be sufficient to establish prices through the interaction of supply and demand. Equity issues could be addressed by a guaranteed water provision with a relatively low price for the guaranteed level. Security in terms of adequate groundwater storage could be achieved through appropriate investment. A representative body of water users would help the utility determine appropriate limits and guarantees. The conceptual basis for this institutional design is temporal efficiency. While a traditional market could improve spatial allocation, it would not necessarily address sustainability or provide for investment in recycling and other technologies to improve water supply. Furthermore, the proposed system bypasses the issue of property rights required for full market exchange.
SUSTAINABLE GROUNDWATER ALLOCATION IN THE GREAT LAKES BASIN (pp. 615-628)
Timothy J. Morrisa, Satya P. Mohapatrab and Anne Mitchellb
aFaculty of Law, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; bCanadian Institute for Environmental Law and Policy, Toronto, Canada
Contact: Anne Mitchell, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Outdated groundwater allocation policies have resulted in unrestrained abstraction of groundwater in the Great Lakes Basin. Continuing on this course will lead to more frequent conflicts and further degradation of the Basin’s ecosystem. Alternative approaches must focus on achieving sustainable groundwater allocation. The authors present two alternative institutions, local collaborative planning for groundwater allocation, and a regional watershed board. Collaborative institutions responsible for local groundwater planning should be established according to practical geographical units, have access to sound scientific information, utilize adaptive management and engage in open deliberation. The regional watershed board should establish a comprehensive and unified inventory of all groundwater resources in the Basin, designate critical groundwater areas, monitor groundwater management by respective jurisdictions, and make recommendations on best practices.
HIGHLIGHTING THE ‘MULTIPLE’ IN MSPs: THE CASE OF CERRO CHAPELCO, PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA (pp. 629-642)
Alejandra Moreyra and Kai Wegerich, Irrigation and Water Engineering Group, Wageningen University
Contact: Alejandra Moreyra, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Mainstream opinions put forward the idea that changes in water policies should be moving toward Integrated Water Resources Management at the level of the river basin (or watersheds). For its implementation, participation by river basin organizations (river basin authorities, river basin committees, communities of users, multi-stakeholder platforms, etc.) and by stakeholders is promoted. Multi-Stakeholder Platforms (MSPs) are presented as neutral spaces for negotiations in order to solve water conflicts among different (multiple) actors, who are all invited to participate in the discussion. Evidence from this case study suggests that even where water is put forward as the main issue to be tackled, in the background there may be far more sensitive issues at stake that shape the arenas of negotiation of policy design and implementation. MSPs can be used to bring to the fore issues that are easy to address, but can also be the background for wider social and political complexities. This is pursued using technical language to justify political definitions of boundaries, stakeholders and processes of participation. The ‘Watershed as a unit of planning’ approach is also presented as a neutral way of using a technical definition to set the boundaries for resource management. However, this study shows that the definition of boundaries is not necessarily as natural as it appears but is much more of a political decision that defines which resources are involved and which actors are considered or left out. The ‘multiple’ in MSPs is not only about ‘stakeholders’, but the different constructions of boundaries, scales and political interests, which include and exclude stakeholders. In the implementation of an MSP, the Multiple is rhetorical and not a representation of realties.
Workshop on Integrated Water Resources Management in Latin America
Reflections on Water for Food and Rural Development at the 4th World Water Forum, Mexico 2006