Special Thematic Issue: Club of Tokyo
GLOBALIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES: DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS OF DIVERSIFIED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (pp. 481-487)
Kazuo Takahashi, International Development Research Institute, Kudanminami, Chiyodaku, Japan
Abstract: The powerful forces of market-based globalization have been the central concern in the consideration of the development policies of individual developing countries for several years and will increase their salience in the coming period. Water policy should not be an exception. Market-based globalization having diametrically opposite forces, namely integration into the world economy and marginalization from it, the developing world has been divided into three categories, each requiring a different set of policy responses, including water policies. They are: (1) those countries that are being integrated into the world economy; (2) those that are marginalized from it; and (3) those where both forces (integration and marginalization) are at work simultaneously. Relevant policies, such as full cost pricing, environmental considerations, water productivity in agriculture, conict in water allocation and others, need to be elaborated along the lines of these three categories of countries.
WATER POLICIES IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD (pp. 489-499)
Asit K. Biswas, Third World Centre for Water Management, Atizapan, Estado de Mexico, Mexico
Abstract: Even though water policy has generally been considered to be an important issue, its rational formulation and implementation have basically received lip service in the past. Water policies in the 21st century must consider the important changes that have occurred during the past decade, and also the changes that are likely to occur in the coming years. All water policies have risks and uncertainties associated with them. The main changes and constraints are analysed. Water policies cannot be static: they should be considered to be a journey and not a destination. Future policies must address rapidly diversifying social interests and agendas that are likely to be awash in chaos, conicting views, rapid technological changes, globalization, relentless economic competition, political uncertainties and steadily increasing human aspirations. Theoretical and conceptual approaches, irrespective of their attractiveness, are not enough, unless they can be operationalized. This will not be an easy task, but one that must be undertaken.
FIRMING UP THE CONCEPTUAL BASIS OF INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (pp. 501-510)
Torkil Jonch-Clausen and Jens Fugl, Global Water Partnership (GWP), DHI Water & Environment, Hørsholm, Denmark
Contact: Torkil Jonch-Clausen, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: This paper focuses on dening the concept and process of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), and in particular what is being ‘integrated’. In the ‘natural system’ integration traditionally involves land and water; surface water and groundwater; water quantity and quality; and upstream and downstream water-related interests, including the upstream freshwater catchments and the downstream coastal zone. However, equally important, but less traditional, is the integration in the ‘human system’ involving a holistic institutional approach; mainstreaming water in the national economy; cross-sectoral integration in national policy development; linkages to national security and trade regimes; and involvement of all stakeholders across different management levels.
INSTITUTIONALIZING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT APPROACH: CO-ORDINATION ACROSS TRADITIONAL BOUNDARIES (pp. 511-520)
I.H. Olcay Ünver, GAP, Cankaya, Ankara, Turkey
Abstract: Water-based development is a catalyst for economic, social and environmental changes. Currently, this development is framed in the discourse of sustainability, based on such concepts as participation, gender equity and the containment of environmental and social impacts. Policies concerning these changes are implemented via state institutions, often in tandem with private institutions, both commercial (banks and businesses) and non-prot (universities and non-governmental organizations). The success of sustainable integrated development depends on the ability of these institutions to incorporate the concepts of sustainability, to adapt to changing environments and to optimize co-operation with other institutions. However, these institutions may vary greatly in their interpretation of the sustainability discourse, as well as in their capacity to implement those concepts consistently. This paper presents some of the current issues related to the need for capacity building and multisectoral co-ordination in order to ensure ongoing sustainable development (SD) where most, if not all, actors have a critical understanding of development discourse and are able to apply the concepts of sustainability in their normal operations. These issues are then discussed in the context of the experience of the South-eastern Anatolia Project Regional Development Administration in introducing SD to south-eastern Turkey.
ASSURING WATER FOR FOOD: THE CHALLENGE OF THE COMING GENERATION (pp. 521-525)
Ismail Serageldin, Library of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt
Abstract: There are many problems facing us on the road to a water-secure future. This paper addresses only one: the need for more water for food production to meet the needs of a population that will increase by some 2 billion before it stabilizes. Irrigation accounts for about two-thirds of total water withdrawals and as much as 80–90% in many developing countries. Of a total of 15003 106 ha under cultivation, 300 3 106 ha of irrigated land provides some 40% of total food production. Expansion in rain-fed areas would mean huge environmental costs, and therefore, a combination of increased efciency in irrigation, better crop deployment, agricultural research in all areas and changes in dietary proles will all be needed. As none of these solutions is quick-acting, we must start on all these fronts promptly if we are to manage our water resources wisely.
WATER PRICING IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE (pp. 527-538)
Mahmoud Abu-Zeid, Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Cornish El-Nil, Imbaba, Giza, Egypt
Abstract: Access to water is viewed as a basic human right, a social necessity and a critical environmental resource in spite of the fact that water also has its own nancial and economic values. Thus, the selection of set prices and pricing mechanisms addressing these contradicting views is remarkably complicated. On the other hand, water pricing is typically viewed as a good means to cover initial costs and sustain resources invested in water systems development, especially irrigated agriculture. Additionally, the cost of water services needs to be reasonable enough and linked to the amount of water consumed to encourage conservation. This paper illustrates criteria for equitable cost sharing, which include economic justication, efciency and equity as well as users’ acceptance. Elements of agricultural water pricing are also discussed. These elements comprise: the cost of water services, which is the total cost associated with irrigated agricultural systems development; the value of water, which reects water’s economic, social, environmental, cultural and religious values in the society; and the cost recovery mechanisms, which are the organizational and administrative measures to implement
agreed upon policies to value water and services and make the collections.
THE GREATEST WATER PROBLEM: THE INABILITY TO LINK ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY, WATER SECURITY AND FOOD SECURITY (pp. 539-554)
Malin Falkenmark, Stockholm International Water Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Abstract: The world is moving towards a dangerous situation of societal instability due to our failing ability to manage the life support system on the human-dominated planet. Contributing to this problem are inherited and biased ways of thinking, originating from the 17th century and based on fragmentation and sectorization. A fundamental shift in thinking is therefore needed urgently, to better bridge the partial realities addressed up until now. Awareness has to be built up around the need for societal adaptation to hydroclimatic constraints, and strong enough institutions must be developed, capable of supporting unpopular decisions. A proper conceptualization is badly needed of the life support system in a science of ‘environmentology’, in which water is acknowledged as the bloodstream of the biosphere. Both land/water linkages and water/ecosystem linkages will have to be properly entered into an integrated and catchment-based land/water/ecosystem approach. The goal has to meet both societal needs and environmental sustainability conditions. Attention will have to be paid to all water, both liquid blue water, supporting humanity and aquatic ecosystems, and vapour-form green water, supporting terrestrial ecosystems, agriculture and forestry. The economic resource will have to be seen as the precipitation over the basin. Both water-dependent and water-impacting activities and ecosystems in the basin have to be analysed. Joint attention will have to be paid to environmental security, water security and food security. Methods for compromise building between incompatible water-related interests and ecosystems will have to be developed. Societal acceptance will depend on awareness campaigns—make water everybody’s business—and has to be secured by participation. A new ethics of hydrosolidarity will have to be developed between those living upstream and those living downstream in a river basin.
TOWARDS A SOLUTION TO THE NORTH–SOUTH PROBLEM (pp. 555-561)
Yutaka Takahasi, Construction Project Consultants, Shinyuku, Japan
Abstract: One of the most important issues in avoiding a global water crisis is to solve the confrontation between developed and developing countries. As Japan in the 20th century has experienced the shift from a developing country to a developed country, it should candidly share its precious historical experience, both its merits and demerits, with people throughout Monsoon Asia. Two practical proposals to economize water demand are as follows: to economize toilet water in a way that meets the conditions of each region; and to develop the effective utilization of water for irrigated rice paddies, not only in the Monsoon Asia but throughout the world. In short, new life-styles are necessary if the global water crisis is to be averted.
OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS IN THE TRANSFER OF WATER TECHNOLOGY AND EXPERIENCE BETWEEN COUNTRIES AND REGIONS (pp. 563-579)
John J. Pigram, Centre for Water Policy Research, University of New England, Armidale, Australia
Abstract: Caution is called for in endorsing the direct transfer of technology and experience in water management from one situation to another in the expectation that the outcome will be more effective water use. This can best be illustrated by reference to the potential for transfer of developed world standards and practices to the developing world. Questions arise as to the extent that such transfers are possible, given contrasting political structures and priorities, different living standards, cultural traits, systems of land tenure, technological and literacy levels, and financial and infrastructure constraints. Pursuing over-optimistic expectations that North-South replication and exchange of experience and technology offer a ready solution to the water problems of developing countries is likely to lead to frustration in seeking unrealistic and unachievable outcomes. The preferred approach is to build bridges between water managers and water-using sectors in emerging nations of the developing world, and to encourage a benchmarking process involving the South-South transfer of successful experience and better practice in water management.
INTEGRATED URBAN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: A CHALLENGE INTO THE 21ST CENTURY (pp. 581-599)
B.P.F. Braga, National Water Agency, Brasilia DF, Brazil
Abstract: The concept of integrated water resources management (IWRM) was introduced in the realm of the International Water Resources Association some 30 years ago. In the context of the urban environment, IWRM requires that management should encompass not only other sectors such as transportation, housing, etc. but also the concurrence of professionals of different disciplines. The paper presents the challenges faced by two metropolitan regions, one in the developed world and one in the developing world. In both cases it is shown that demand management can play a definite role in achieving integrated water management. The complexity of managing the mega-cities of the 21st century will require the creation of a new professional who will be able to coordinate multidisciplinary team work in the water sector.
LARGE DAMS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A CASE-STUDY OF THE SARDAR SAROVAR PROJECT, INDIA (pp. 601-609)
Jay Narayan Vyas, Saket Projects, Saket House, Panchsheel, Usmanpura, Kamalkhokhani, India
Abstract: Along with being a basic human need, water is also a basic constituent for the survival of eco-systems of which people and their cultures are important components. The water resources distribution in India, predominantly an agrarian economy, is highly asymmetric and has been accompanied by severe decline in per-capita water availability during the past 50 years, with agricultural being the maximum water user, leading to over-exploitation of ground water and steadily depleting water tables along with a heavy energy bill. Gujarat State falls in water stressed zone of the country and is also victim of intra-state asymmetric water availability leading to an unwanted socio-economic disparity, with following results: a poor literacy rate in the water-deficit districts; concentration of industry and housing in regions with better water resources endowment; and demographic change, e.g. the shifting of the prime workforce from drought-prone districts to water-surplus districts. Which in turn denies the right to life, development, health, food, education and work to these migrated communities. To ensure a balanced development where there is less than one acre per capita of cultivable landholding and over 14 000 villages out of 18 563 suffering from water scarcity, there is no other alternative but to transfer water from surplus to scarce areas of the state. This paper aims at raising some critical questions on water issues, food security, energy viability, rights of people, and most importantly, water security in the context of sustainable development.
SECURING OWNERSHIP IN AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT BY ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY: A CASE-STUDY OF THE SAGULING RESERVOIR, WEST JAVA (pp. 611-631)
Jagath Manatungea, Nancy Contreras Morenob, Mikiyasu Nakayamac and Tsuneaki Yoshidad
aDepartment of Environmental Science and Human Engineering, Saitama University, Japan; bLand Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA; cUnited Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agricultural and Technology, Japan; dFaculty of International Development, Takushoku University, Japan
Contact: Jagath Manatunge, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Development projects requiring displacement of people often result in their impoverishment; however, sustainable resettlement programmes can be devised with the introduction of alternative technologies that will enable the resettlers to exploit new productive opportunities. The majority of resettlers in the Saguling reservoir lacked the capital to invest in fisheries development and subsequently alternative technologies were introduced, enabling them to engage in aquaculture, but without success. This paper aims to examine the reasons why the introduction of alternative technology failed to establish in the Saguling reservoir, using data obtained through a literature review, interviews and a field survey. The analysis emphasizes seven factors that are crucial in the evaluation of the success of technology transfer and diffusion efforts in general.
BENEFITS OF DRAINING AGRICULTURAL LAND IN EGYPT: RESULTS OF FIVE YEARS’ MONITORING OF DRAINAGE EFFECTS AND IMPACTS (pp. 633-646 )
Amal Mohamed Alia, H.M. Van Leeuwenb and R.K. Koopmansb
aEgyptian Public Authority for Drainage Projects, Cairo, Egypt; bARCADIS Euroconsult, Netherlands
Abstract: One of the largest drainage programmes in the world was started in Egypt soon after completion of the High Aswan Dam in 1970. So far, about 2 X 106 ha of irrigated farmland in the Nile basin have been provided with subsurface drainage systems. In a country-wide monitoring and evaluation project, the effects of drainage on groundwater tables and soil salinity have been assessed and the impacts on yields and farm incomes determined. The results show that the drainage programme is an effective measure in controlling groundwater tables and salinity and a highly profitable investment for both the national economy and farmers.
Water Management in Islam, edited by Naser I. Faruqui, Asit K. Biswas and Murad J. Bino Ottawa, International Development Research Centre and Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 2001
Middle East Water Question: Hydropolitics and the Global Economy, Tony Allan London, I.B. Tauris, 2001