SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT: SOME PERSONAL THOUGHTS (pp. 109-116)
Asit K. Biswas, Chairman, Middle East Water Commission, President, International Society for Ecological Modelling, Oxford, UK
Abstract: Sustainable development has now become a popular term, but it often means different things to different people. Operationalization of this concept is still not possible. This paper examines some of the major issues associated with sustainability. The opportunities and constraints of the current environmental assessment approaches for water development are objectively discussed.
REMOTE SENSING OF WATERSHED CHARACTERISTICS IN COSTA RICA (pp. 117-130)
Gerardo-Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa and Robert C. Harriss, Complex Systems Research Center, Institute For the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, USA
Abstract: An integration of digital elevation modelling and satellite remote sensing of land cover and land use in the Upper Reventazon Basin in Costa Rica has been used to identify possible sources of enhanced sediment erosion. The techniques described quantify the occurrence and spatial distribution of specific land use categories as a function of slope for the entire basin. The results provide a framework for the designing of focused field measurement and policy programmes related to soil conservation. In the Reventazon Basin these techniques could help resolve conflicts between agriculture, hydropower production and water quality protection.
RESERVOIR/RIVER SYSTEM ANALYSIS MODELS: CONVENTIONAL SIMULATION VERSUS NETWORK FLOW PROGRAMMING (pp. 131-142)
Ralph A. Wurbsa and Anilkumar Yerramreddyb
aCivil Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA; bTexas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Texas, USA
Abstract: Conventional simulation models and network flow programming are two widely used alternative approaches for analysing reservoir/river systems. Conventional simulation models typically provide greater flexibility in representing the complexities of real-world systems. Network flow programming provides capabilities to search systematically and efficiently through numerous possible combinations of decision variable values, with a more prescriptive modelling orientation. A comparative evaluation of the alternative modelling approaches is presented. The Water Rights Analysis Program (TAMUWRAP) provides a case study for the comparative evaluation. For this particular application, neither modelling approach was found to have a clearly defined advantage over the other. However, in general, the characteristics of the alternative modelling approaches result in each being most appropriate in certain situations. The different models can also be used in combination.
WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ON THE SMALL ISLAND OF MAURITIUS (pp. 143-155)
T. Ramjeawon, Department of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius
Abstract: Small island states have particular hydrological and water resources management problems which distinguish them from large islands and continental areas. Understanding and implementing strategies for sustainable development as seen from a water perspective become critical issues for islanders. The island of Mauritius, situated in the Indian Ocean about 800 km east of Madagascar, has one of the highest population densities in the world and this factor, together with the country’s rapid economic development during the last decade, has led to an ever increasing demand for water. As such, water rationing is a recurrent problem during dry periods which causes many economic and sanitary risks. It is now clear among policy makers in Mauritius that water will increasingly become a constraint on economic and social development. This paper summarizes the basic hydrological features of the island and highlights the various management strategies needed when looking at long-term development options.
WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDO-NEPAL REGION (pp. 157-173)
A. Ramachandra Raoa and T. Prasadb
aSchool of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, USA; bCentre for Water Resources Studies, (Patna University), Bihar College of Engineering, Patna, India
Abstract: There is no difference of opinion about the idea that development of water and hydroelectric power resources in the Indo-Nepal region would be of substantial mutual benefit to both countries. Any development in the region of Nepal and the Indian States of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar would be of considerable benefit to the people, as this region is one of the poorest in the world. Large projects have been discussed between the two countries for several decades. However, none of these projects has reached even the design stage. Consequently benefits from these projects will take at least two or more decades to reach the people. The present study was undertaken to understand the reasons for lack of progress in these projects. The problem is stated first, followed by a description of the physical features of the area under consideration. The water and power projects already undertaken and important projects which are being considered are discussed next. Several reasons for the lack of action, and the needs for research, are specified. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations.
INTER-STATE RIVER WATER DISPUTES: A HISTORICAL REVIEW (pp. 175-189)
R.B. Shah, Executive Director, C.C. Patel & Associates (P) Ltd., New Delhi, and former Chairman, Central Water Commission, Govt. of India, New Delhi, India
Abstract: India has a federal set-up and about 80% of water resources are derived from inter-state rivers. There have naturally been a number of disputes among the states regarding allocation and utilization of waters of inter-state rivers. This article is a historical review of the resolution of such disputes under the present constitutional provisions and the experience gained. It is hoped that this will be of use in the resolution of such disputes in other countries.
INDIAN FEDERALISM AND WATER RESOURCES (pp. 191-202)
Ramaswamy R. Iyer, Centre for Policy Research, Dharma Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi, India
Abstract: In the Indian federal system the centre has not made much use of the potential for legislation and executive action given to it by the Constitution in respect of inter-state rivers and river valleys. The River Boards Act 1956 has remained a dead letter. There is no real river basin authority and there has been no basin-wide planning. The conflict-resolution mechanism needs some improvements. Further, the constitutional provisions need to be reviewed in the light of the environmental, social and other concerns which have acquired great importance in recent years, as also the newer ideas of greater participation by the people in the management of community resources.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR SUBARNAREKHA IRRIGATION PROJECT (pp. 203-219)
R. Rajappa, Krishna Pal, Aman Sharma and A.K. Sharma, WAPCOS Centre for Environment, Water and Power Consultancy Services (India) Limited, New Delhi, India
Abstract: This paper deals with EIA for construction of three reservoirs, namely Haldia, Jambhira and Baura in Mayurbhanj district, Orissa. The gross command area of the project is about 170 000 ha while the culturable command area is 110 000 ha. The baseline data for parameters such as water quality, population, meteorology, physiograhpy, geology, ecology, soil, land use, etc. were collected to assess the impacts. The positive as well as negative impacts were ascertained and management plans were formulated for critically affected parameters. Management measures such as compensatory afforestation, rehabilitation of oustees, plantation of village woodlots, realignment of canals etc. have been prepared. A post-project monitoring plan is being suggested for water quality, soil, public health and growth of aquatic weeds. The costs for management measures and post-project monitoring programmes have been computed. A checklist of positive and negative impacts has also been prepared which highlights that the project is eco-friendly.
Irrigation-induced Salinity: A Growing Problem for Development and the Environment, by Dina L. Umali, Washington, DC, USA, 1993