INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN AN INSECURE RIVER BASIN: A CASE STUDY OF HELMAND RIVER BASIN, AFGHANISTAN (pages 3-25)
aMott MacDonald Ltd, Cambridge, UK; bWRPMC Ltd, West Linton, Peebleshire, UK; cIndependent Consultant, Hindhead, Surrey, UK; dIndependent Consultant, Kathmandu, Nepal
Contact: B.J.M Goes, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: The Helmand River Basin is a closed river basin in (semi)arid southern Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. Irrigation is by far the largest surface water use. Two of the three main rivers have large dams that regulate river flow for irrigation and hydropower. Water management in the basin faces a number of challenges, among which are insecurity, collapse of the river flow monitoring network in the Afghan part of the basin in 1980, inefficient operation and maintenance of existing water infrastructure, many drought years since 1999, reduced upstream water storage due to siltation of reservoirs, and a possible future reduction in snow storage as a result of a predicted temperature rise. The paper presents: (1) an overview of water resources and water management in the Helmand River Basin, where data are scarce and difficult to access; (2) a description of innovative methods used to generate simulated flow data for the basin, including the use of globally gridded data sets; (3) a discussion of how the reservoirs could be operated in light of irrigation and hydropower demand; and (4) a discussion on strengthening the transboundary cooperation between Afghanistan and Iran.
Keywords: Helmand; insecurity; irrigation; reservoir operation; river basin management; simulated runoff; Afghan– Iranian Helmand River Treaty
AN EVALUATION OF MĀORI VALUES IN MULTISCALAR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES GOVERNING KAIPARA HARBOUR IN NEW ZEALAND (pages 26-42)
aUS Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Superior National Forest, Duluth, MN, USA; b Rubenstein School of the Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
Contact: Pooja Kanwar, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Indigenous knowledge and values are increasingly found in watershed management to engage important stakeholders in the development of modern resource management practices and policies. This paper explores the integration of Māori values in water and land policies governing Kaipara Harbour in New Zealand as a case study for this approach. Multijurisdictional documents were analysed for the inclusion of nine wellestablished Māori values that have applications to land, water and natural resource management. The results of this study identified the most and least commonly mentioned values in policy documents, and a scalar trend in which integration of Māori values increased as the geographic scale and jurisdiction of the respective governing policies decreased.
Keywords: Kaipara Harbour; New Zealand; multijurisdictional watershed governance; indigenous knowledge; Māori values
SOCIAL PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SERVICES DELIVERY: CONCEPTUAL ROOTS AND RESULTS FOR THE PORTUGUESE WATER SECTOR (pages 43-56)
Abstract: This study explores the relationship between social performance and the sector providing the water service. The empirical analysis demonstrates that public property, the management model (in this case bureaucracy and municipal corporations), and lower organizational costs for public property and public management models do present higher social performance (lower user prices and higher quality water levels, with exceptions) levels than private firms. Policy implementations are clear: cease private firms’ entrance into public services delivery until lower organizational costs, higher quality services and lower user prices are secured. This also raises discussions about neo-bureaucracies as the ideal management model for public services provision.
Keywords: social performance; public service delivery; multidimensional performance models; Portuguese water industry
STAKEHOLDER COLLABORATION IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY REVIEW PROCESS (pages 57-76)
aDepartment of Geography, University of Montana, Missoula, MA, USA; bNohad A. Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning, Portland State University, Portland, OR, USA
Contact: David Shively, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: The public participation element of the Columbia River Treaty Review process conducted in the United States was assessed: to what extent did it incorporate participation by basin stakeholders, how importantly did this figure in the minds of stakeholders, and what is the prospect for stakeholder concerns to be given meaningful attention by the US Department of State in deliberations and actions concerning the future of the treaty? The analysis revealed that collaboration is important to stakeholders, and the process facilitated a significant degree of collaboration. The continuation of collaboration in treaty negotiation and in post-2024 treaty implementation was recommended.
Keywords: Columbia River Treaty; treaty review; stakeholder collaboration; qualitative methods; treaty recommendation
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN URMIA LAKE: THRESHOLDS APPROACH (pages 77-88)
aTechnical and Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; bDepartment of Irrigation & Reclamation Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
Contact: Bahram Saghafian, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Urmia Lake is a vivid example of negligence in providing the environmental water requirement rooted in prolonged droughts and excessive upstream water withdrawal. The aim of this study is to propose a reclamation strategy for the lake by focusing on estimation of environmental requirement thresholds under various drought severity conditions. On the average, the lake will remain in a moderate hydrological drought condition if the business-as-usual scenario prevails. The shares of natural drought, water withdrawals and water resources development projects (i.e. dams) in recent lake inflow reduction are estimated at 45%, 40% and 15%, respectively; thus, the aggregated contribution of human-induced factors has a more significant impact on the current lake condition than that of natural drought, and a firm and consistent approach to reduce water consumption by the agricultural sector is required for lake reclamation.
Keywords: Urmia Lake; drought; threshold; environmental management; water withdrawals
RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODELLING OF WATER RESOURCES IN THE UPPER SENEGAL RIVER BASIN (pages 89-101)
aLaboratoire Leïdi «Dynamique des territoires et développement» Université Gaston Berger (UGB), Saint Louis, Sénégal; bIRD, UMR HydroSciences, Université Montpellier 2, France; cFaculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines, Département de Géographie (UCAD), Dakar-Fann, Sénégal
Contact: Ansoumana Bodian, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: The streamflow series for the upstream basin of the Senegal River is marked by considerable gaps. The objective of this article is to simulate and extend hydrological data, using the GR2M rainfall-runoff model. A sensitivity analysis of the model to rainfall and water holding capacity input data was performed. This analysis was performed after calculating catchment rainfall, mean potential evapotranspiration, and maximum, minimum and mean water holding capacity. The best combination of input data was chosen by catchment based on the Nash-Sutcliffe criterion. Then cross calibration-validation tests were performed, using the selected input data to choose model parameter sets.
Keywords: upper Senegal River basin; rainfall-runoff modelling; water resources; GR2M; streamflow
EXAMINING UNCERTAINTY AND TRUST AMONG IRRIGATORS AND REGULATORY BODIES IN THE MURRAY-DARLING BASIN (pages 102-115)
aDepartment of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia; bDepartment of Communication, International Studies and Languages, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
Contact: Lia Bryant, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Due to changing climate and water legislation in South Australia, Australia’s oldest water trust, the Renmark Irrigation Trust (RIT), and the community it serves have faced unprecedented changes in water allocations. Using participatory research methods, this article examines irrigators’ perceptions of risk, uncertainty and trust in relation to changing water legislation and drought. The social, cultural and regulatory relationship between irrigators and the RIT and the conditions in which trust is given are also explored. Foucault’s understanding of power provides the analytical context in which we examine how power and knowledge are constituted, negotiated and reconstructed at the local level to shape trust between individuals and the RIT.
Keywords: Murray-Darling Basin; trust; drought; regulation; rural community
SLEEPING WITH THE ENEMY? CAPTURING INTERNAL RISKS IN THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF A WATER MANAGEMENT PROJECT (pages 116-134)
aInternational Development and Management Program at Lund University, Lund, Sweden; bInternational Water Management Institute East Africa & Nile Basin Office, C/o ILRI-Ethiopia Campus Bole Sub City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; cInternational Water Management Institute Regional Office for Central Asia Tashkent Office, Tashkent, Uzbekistan; dInternational Water Management Institute Southern Africa Office Pretoria Office, Pretoria, South Africa
Contact: Jusipbek Kazbekov, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Logframes are fundamental to contemporary development. However, there are ongoing debates about their efficacy. This paper pinpoints the limitations of the logframe approach in a water project in Central Asia. Issues surrounding logframes are identified. These include addressing internal risks; the use of baseline studies for the accuracy of assumptions; the ability to adapt under an inflexible budget; and linking the logframe and contract. Findings show that rigid planning may constrain effective project implementation. Greater flexibility through embedded learning and adaptation, adjustable budgets and meaningful mainstreaming of risks may equip projects to cope with uncertainties to achieve sustainability.
Keywords: transboundary water cooperation; integrated water resources management (IWRM); Ferghana Valley; Syr Darya basin; Central Asia
DRIVERS OF WATER GOVERNANCE REFORMS IN THE PHILIPPINES (pages 135-152)
aInstitute for Governance and Rural Development, College of Public Affairs and Development, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Los Baños, Philippines; bInstitute of Management, University of the Philippines Baguio, Baguio City, Philippines; cCollege of Arts and Science, Division of Social Sciences, University of the Philippines Visayas, Miagao, Philippines; dCollege of Management, University of the Philippines Visayas, Iloilo City, Philippines; eLee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Contact: Agnes C. Rola, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: This paper analyses the enabling conditions for a water governance model responsive to future Philippine water requirements. Using the stage-based approach to institutional reforms, it assesses the outcomes of previous water governance reforms, such as conflicts in customary and formal rules; urban and rural; upstream and downstream; and the contestations in water supply privatization in Metro Manila. The analysis suggests that past water governance reforms were symbolic and procedural, and structural changes to support the legal frameworks were not achieved. Based on the case findings, the authors support the current reform agenda of implementing a decentralized framework of water governance at a watershed scale.
Keywords: water governance; customary rules; privatization; integrated water resources management; Philippines
LAKE MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATIONS IN CHINA (pages 153-166)
Contact: Min Jin, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: The paper analyses the range of lake management organizations (LMOs) established in China and proposes management recommendations for different lake types and contexts. Based on functions, regional coverage and sectoral focus, nine LMO patterns are identified, ranging from existing agency approaches in which there is no specific lake focus or institutional responsibility to comprehensive and powerful lake basin authorities. LMO development in China faces many challenges, including a preoccupation with organizational form rather than function and objectives, duplication with existing agency functions, and insufficient lake basin management and trans-jurisdictional coordination. We therefore propose that LMOs should be tailored to specific situations and problems, drawing distinctions between plateau, urban, plain, inland and wetland lakes as well as other contexts.
Keywords: China; lake management organizations; governance roles; environmental degradation; multidimensional management; actors
Workshop on ‘Water reuse policies for direct and non-direct potable and industrial reuses’, Singapore, 15–16 June 2015