GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS IN EXTREMELY ARID REGIONS: A CASE STUDY (pp. 403-412)
Abstract: In Saudi Arabia, the recharge to local and regional aquifers is mostly indirect, very limited and insignificant, especially with low annual precipitation. Most of the stored groundwater in local and regional aquifers is non-renewable fossil water. With rapid socio-economic developments and increasing population coupled with agricultural and industrial growth in the Kingdom, especially after the large increase in oil revenues after 1974, the water demands have increased drastically. By understanding the aquifer features, the country followed a planned approach based on controlling aquifer development and demand management to use its groundwater resources. The socio-economic developments in rural areas have been very pronounced. Corrective demand management measures including reduction in cultivated areas and modification in agricultural support policies in addition to the augmentation of water supplies by the reuse of treated wastewater have reduced the stress on groundwater. The establishment of a special Ministry for water and the adoption of a national water planning approach and the use of an integrated water resources management tool are expected to contribute effectively to the achievement of sustainable groundwater resources and the national interest of the country.
POLITICAL ECONOMY OF GROUNDWATER EXPLOITATION: THE ISRAELI CASE (pp. 413-423)
Abstract: As the reliance on aquifers rises and the intensiveness of their exploitation increases, the need to manage them sustainably becomes increasingly apparent (Shah et al., 2000). While the determination of sustainable development of aquifers raises a host of very complex issues (Llamas & Custudio, 2003), the general outline of the steps and measures that would lead to more sustainable use patterns of aquifers are largely well known (Haddad et al., 2001a; Garrido & Livingston, 2003). Still, in many, and perhaps most, cases these measures are not used, and aquifers are exploited in an unsustainable manner, even when very wide definitions of sustainability are used (Lundquist, 1998; Shah et al., 2000). This has been the case in Israel (Gvirtzman, 2002). The question that needs to be asked, therefore, is why have the best measures advanced not been used?
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY ON THE BARIND TRACT (pp. 425-435)
aCivil Engineering, Presidency University, Dhaka, Bangladesh; bEnvironmental Studies, North South University, Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh; cCivil Engineering, University of Asia Pacific, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Contact: I.M. Faisal, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Since its birth in 1985, the Barind Multi-purpose Development Project (BMDP) has become a model of a sustainable rural development project in Bangladesh. The project maintains technical soundness by ensuring a high level of water use efficiency and a minimum well spacing. The project runs on full operating and maintenance cost recovery basis, which is achieved through an innovative prepaid water coupon system and the associated command area development scheme. Its governance structure is democratic and participatory. The project has several environmental enhancement programmes such as water conservation, homestead and social forestry, promotion of integrated pest control, and fanners’ training. In addition, it has adopted an integrated planning approach that incorporates extending rural electrification, building rural infrastructure and an array of other support programmes. As a result, the BMDP has emerged as a model of sustainable groundwater-based rural development initiative in Bangladesh.
APPROACH AND METHODS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF SUSTAINABLE GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT IN THE RHINE-NECKAR REGION, GERMANY (pp. 437-451)
Contact: Jens Mödinger, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: The Rhine-Neckar Region is a densely populated and highly industrialized region with competing interests and strong pressure on the availability of high-quality groundwater. The increasing pressure on both groundwater quantity and quality is due to the high demand of people and industry for water and to pollution by industrial spills as well as agricultural activities. This led to a systematic investigation of the groundwater management of the multilayered transboundary aquifer and the question of its sustainability. A combination of intensive groundwater model simulations, scenario analyses and stakeholder participation proved to be a promising approach to tackle the complex issues of groundwater management. Long-term consequences, changes in natural processes and ecosystem needs were particularly considered. Specific recommendations for improved groundwater management in this region were formulated. The study also shows the need for a general approach towards the assessment of sustainable groundwater management.
CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER USE IN BANGKOK, THAILAND (pp. 453-464)
Contact: Ashim Das Gupta, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: An overview of groundwater development in Bangkok, Thailand, is provided and the paper highlights the environmental consequences of unplanned large-scale groundwater utilization. The effectiveness of the control measures adopted so far to address the issue of land subsidence is discussed. Recent initiatives and studies are analysed and the impediments to effective implementation of control measures are identified. Challenges faced by the Department of Groundwater Resources, which is responsible for groundwater development and management, are indicated. Recommendations are then put forward for improvement of the groundwater management system.
PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS AND ACTIONS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGION, USA (pp. 465-472)
aSoil and Environmental Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA; bWashington State University, Shelton, WA, USA; cUniversity of Alaska, Anchorage, AK, USA
Contact: Robert L. Mahler, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: A 50-question survey was developed by the land grant universities in the Pacific Northwest to document public awareness, aptitudes, attitudes and actions toward water issues in the states of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon and Washington, USA. Demographic data were also collected about the survey respondents. The statistically designed survey was completed by over 50% of the 1800 residents who were solicited for the study. The public consider clean groundwater a high priority issue. Survey respondents currently consider groundwater quality to be good; however, most people are unaware of groundwater quantity issues. In the last 5 years, a majority of survey respondents have taken voluntary actions both to protect groundwater quality and to conserve the use of this resource. People want the government to focus more attention on groundwater issues, however, they are unwilling to pay increased taxes to achieve this end. Based on this survey, the land grant universities need to increase groundwater education programmes for the public using television, radio, newspapers and the Internet rather than by the traditional workshop delivery methods.
PERFORMANCE OF FARMER-MANAGED IRRIGATION SYSTEMS FOR RICE PRODUCTION IN EAST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA (pp. 473-491)
Contact: Jayant K. Rountray, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: This paper addresses the importance of an institutional mechanism to allocate and distribute irrigation water properly, to reduce conflicts and to mobilize financial support for sustainable rice production. The study reveals that the contributing factors affecting the performance of farmer-managed irrigation systems for rice production are plot size and the application of seed, fertilizer and pesticides, and the influencing factors are water adequacy during the dry season and a fixed schedule of intermittent flow of water distribution. Water inadequacy and dissatisfaction on the timeliness of water distribution are the potential sources of conflicts, whereas the ability of farmers to pay irrigation fees and the acceptance of a fee system are the major concerns about the financial support for irrigation operation and maintenance. The accountability of a water user’s association is the main factor influencing the success of an institutional role in the sustainability of rice production.
INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING ON WATER POLLUTION CONTROL IN COLOMBIA’S CAUCA VALLEY (pp. 493-508)
aThe World Bank, Washington, D.C., USA; bDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Terman Engineering Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
Contact: Leonard Ortolano, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Colombia’s Cauca Valley Corporation has a reputation for high-quality work in controlling water pollution. The corporation’s regulatory programme, which includes both traditional regulation and a system of effluent charges, reflects both learning by doing and learning by exploration. The successful creation of the programme is explained in terms of the learning that led the corporation to emphasize cooperation with industry, to de-emphasize strict enforcement of regulations, and to experiment with effluent charges. Significantly, the charge scheme was effective because the effluent fees paid by firms were publicized in newspapers and the publicity influenced the reputations and decisions of company leaders.
SHIFTING PARADIGMS IN WATER PROVISIONING POLICIES: A TRINIDAD CASE STUDY (pp. 509-523)
Abstract: In most developing countries, planning was initially concerned with economic growth. Upon gaining political independence, post-colonial countries set about addressing the unmet backlog of physical and social infrastructure problems, low rates of economic growth, and poverty. Since the post-independence era, development in non-industrialized countries has undergone significant changes in both scope and approach and has arisen from shifts in international agency policies as well as from local factors. These transformations are reflected in issues such as the provision of infrastructure, of which water supply is a prime example. The aim here is first to provide a schematic presentation of five periods of shifting paradigms in water provisioning policies globally and give their impact on Trinidad’s water policies. Second, it seeks to analyse the genesis of government ideology of water as a public good. Finally, it identifies the new concepts in water supply that have emerged since the 1990s and gives their impacts internationally and locally.
ASSESSMENT OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT MODELS IN VIETNAM (pp. 525-535)
Contact: Ashim Das Gupta, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: An assessment of three institutional models for irrigation management in Vietnam is presented. The first model is a joint management by a state agency and farmer organization; the second is a shared management by a quasi-state and farmer organization; and the third is management solely by a farmer organization. The first model is a conventional management system whereas the latter two models have recently been introduced in a limited number of projects as a result of the government policy on reform in the irrigation sector. Three study sites are identified to represent three management models. Apart from the institutional framework and selected management functions, water distribution and agricultural productivity are evaluated and compared. Results indicate the better performance of management models with increased involvement of farmers in the decision-making process. It is recommended that the hydraulic boundaries should be taken into consideration in reforming management systems for irrigation projects.
Pricing Irrigation Water: Principles and Cases from Developing Countries, Yacov Tsur, Terry Roe, Rachid Doukkali and Ariel Dinar, Resources for the Future series, Washington, DC, 2004