WATER RESOURCES OF TURKEY: POTENTIAL, PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT (pp. 443-452)
Abstract: Turkey is a country with considerable water resources in a region where scarcity of water makes it a strategic item. In the second half of the 20th century important efforts have been made in the planning and development of these resources. However, less than one-half of the potential has so far been developed. The rapid growth of population and the expansion of irrigated agriculture and industry are stressing the water resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. The completion of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) and several other projects requires a considerable part of Turkey’s financial and technical resources to be devoted to water resources development.
SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA PROJECT (GAP) (pp. 453-483)
Abstract: The recognition of the great water potential of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers in south-east Turkey led to plans for their sustainable development for irrigation and hydropower generation and to control floods and droughts. This integrated socioeconomic development project, called the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), is one of the largest of its kind in the world. The water resources development programme includes 22 dams, 19 hydropower plants and the irrigation network for 1.7 million ha of land. The US$32 billion project comprises not only water resources development projects, but also investments in all development-relatedsectors.
INNOVATIVE APPROACHES IN WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA PROJECT (GAP) (pp. 485-503)
aCivil Engineering Dept, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, Presently Director General, State Hydraulic Works, Yücetepe, Ankara, Turkey; bNazilli sok, Ankara, Turkey
Abstract: In the Southeastern Anatolia Project, 13 major groups of water resources development projects-primarily for irrigation and hydropower-areplanned to develop and manage soil and water resources in the south-eastern part of Turkey. In this paper, the innovative approaches which are being implemented for sustainable water resources development in the Southeastern Anatolia Project are described.
THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE IN THE GAP REGION AND ITS EVOLUTION (pp. 505-522)
Abstract: GAP is an integrated multisectoral development project implemented in south-east Turkey, which makes up 9.7% of the country. W ith its technical, economic and social dimensions, it is considered in western circles as one of the three to nine wonders of the modern world. As distinct from earlier projects implemented in Turkey (e.g. the Cukurova Plain project) and elsewhere in the world, the main objective of GAP is to improve the living conditions of the people not merely by developing the material infrastructure but by taking the people as the core factor in every component of the project. The sustainability of such projects, it is well realized, depends on the human dimension, and not on success in the achievement of the material goals alone. Within this framework, several sociological research studies were conducted in the region to determine the appropriate approach in making the people a vital component of GAP and in bringing them to participatein the project voluntarily. This article first gives a historical account of nomadic, i.e., ‘tribal’ (or ashiret) aspects of Anatolian history, without which neither the past nor the present of Turkey can be adequately understood.1 It then proceeds to summarize the findings, regarding the ‘tribal’ structure in the region, of the several research studies carried out in the region between 1992 and 1994.
SOCIOCULTURAL ASPECTS OF IRRIGATION PRACTICES IN SOUTH-EASTERN TURKEY (pp. 523-540)
Abstract: This paper examines the irrigation practices of rural households and communities just before the introduction of large-scale irrigation projects in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. The study is based on fieldwork carried out by the authors in 1993. It is hoped that the sociological conceptualization of irrigation practices in the region will pave the way for development of a sociology of irrigation in Turkey. The present study viewed irrigation as a very powerful tool in transforming the sociocultural structures and social habits and/or habitus of a rural community. Almost no other tool can create such a complete change in the total socioeconomic order of a region. Yet it must be stated at the outset that the management, organization and maintenance (MOM) models to be established at farm and village levels must take the existing sociocultural structures of the communities into account. Hence the colossal physical dam construction efforts are to be complemented with the development of an interactive MOM model which should be responsive to the economic, social and cultural structures of rural communities in Turkey.
TOWARD SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA PROJECT (GAP) (pp. 541-546)
Abstract: Being the largest and the most comprehensive regional development effort ever undertaken in Turkey, the South eastern Anatolia Project (GAP) will constitute the primary driving force for the socioeconomic development of the region and consequently of Turkey. Owing to its multipurpose nature, GAP necessitates, on the one hand, discreet conduct in meeting the demands on time so as to spur the rapid development of the region through prudent management of water, and on the other hand, careful consideration, for the sake of sustainable development, of imminent as well as long-term environmental impacts in order for the project to be viable. An integrated basin-wide approach leading to, among other things, quantity and quality management, priority-based allocation, conservation, conjunctive use of various resources of water, mainte- nance of facilities as well as inter- and intra-institutional arrangements, has been adopted from the outset, and is being revised and improved in as profound a way as possible as the project progresses.
IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT IN GAP (pp. 547-560)
Abstract: The multisectoral Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) is the largest regional developmentplan for one of the less developed parts of Turkey. The GAP project includes the irrigation of 1.7 million ha of land and generation of 27 billion kW h of hydroelectric power with an installed capacity of 7500 MW. In order to optimize the benefits to be obtained from irrigation and to ensure sustainable irrigation in the GAP area, the Government of Turkey has commissioned the GAP M anagement, and Operation Maintenance study (GAP MOM). The overall MOM model provides an institutional and organizational framework that promotes the most effective development of irrigated agriculture in the GAP region. This goal can be expressed as three major objectives: maximize net benefits, ensure sustainability and be implementable and flexible.
THE MANAVGAT PROJECT OF TURKEY: WATER, AN ECONOMIC GOOD (pp. 561-565)
Abstract: In spite of the fact that abundance of water creates problems and sometimes disasters, much of the problem with water lies with its scarcity. Water shortages in a region occur mainly for two reasons. The most important one is associated with climatic conditions, whereas the other has to do with the fact that the location of the water resource does not coincide with where it is needed. This is where engineering and technology come into play along with a handsome amount of capital requirement. As is the case for almost all engineering projects, project economy entails both technical and economic feasibility, which in turn requires that water should be treated as an economic commodity.
TURKEY’S HYDROPOLITICS OF THE EUPHRATES-TIGRIS BASIN (pp. 567-581)
Abstract: Turkey is going through a transition period and trying to realize its potential. The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) is an integrated development project; it is expected to affect the entire structure of the area in its economic, social and cultural life. It is env isaged as the means of bridging the gap between the southeastern region and the more advanced areas of Turkey and of increasing the welfare of the region. The GAP Project has caused great anxiety to Syria and Iraq. In order to solve the water problem between Syria and Iraq, Turkey launched a ‘Three Stage Plan’. Turkey considers the issue as an economic rather than a political one.
Asian International Waters: From Ganges-Brahmaputrato Mekong, edited by A.K. Biswas and T. Hashimoto, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996
Sixth UNU Global Environmental Forum: Water for Urban Areas in the 21st Century, Tokyo, Japan, 25 June 1997