Volume 37, Issue 5

September 2021

Editorial »

Future of urban water and wastewater management: views on Singapore International Water Week

Asit K. Biswas and Cecilia Tortajada

Research Article

Three Gorges Project: benefits and challenges for shipping development in the upper Yangtze River

Wenjie Lia, Dawei Wangb, Shengfa Yanga and Wei Yanga

aNational Inland Waterway Regulation Engineering Research Centre, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing, China; bKey Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Hydraulic and Water Transport Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing, China

Contact: Wenjie Li | Email: li_wj1984@163.com


The Three Gorges Project has benefited shipping development in the upper Yangtze River by improving the waterway channel and thus increasing ship load and port handling capacity. However, the Three Gorges lockage freight volume exceeded the designed capacity in 2011 (19 years sooner than expected), becoming a bottleneck for shipping development. For the predicted freight volume, building of a second ship lock with transit capacity of 150 million tons is suggested, and before it is built, ship organization should be optimized to increase transit capacity.

Pages: 758–771

Research Article

Acceptance of direct potable water reuse for domestic purposes: evidence from southern Spain

Samara López-Ruiza, Pablo J. Moya-Fernándezb, Miguel A. García-Rubioc and Francisco González-Gómezd,e

aDepartment of Political Science and Administration, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; bDepartment of Applied Economics, Faculty of Social and Legal Sciences of Melilla, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; cDepartment of Applied Economics, Faculty of Economic and Business Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; dInsitute of Water Research, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; eDepartment of Applied Economics, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

Contact: Samara López-Ruiz | Email: samaralopez.24@gmail.com


Under current Spanish law, domestic use of recycled water is only permitted during an officially declared disaster; however, it could be an option from a regulatory perspective. However, would Spaniards be willing to use recycled water in the home if necessary? This study investigates the public acceptance of recycled water use in Spanish households and identifies the determinants of acceptance. In data from 791 questionnaires administered in southern Spain, recycled water is the least acceptable option for alternative sources of water, behind both rainwater collection and desalination. Perceived health risk and environmental awareness explain the differences in acceptance.

Pages: 772–792

Research Article

Modelling water resources for planning irrigation development in drought-prone southern Chile

Ian McNamaraa, Alexandra Nauditta, Mauricio Zambrano-Bigiarinib, Lars Ribbea and Hamish Hanna

aInstitute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics (ITT), Technical University of Cologne, Germany; bDepartment of Civil Engineering, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile

Contact: Ian McNamara | Email: ian.mcnamara@th-koeln.de


To foster poverty reduction in drought-prone Araucanía, the Chilean Irrigation Commission is planning an important expansion of irrigated areas. Scenarios incorporating climate change (2030–2059) were simulated for a pilot basin using the WEAP water allocation model, showing that larger irrigated areas, coupled with higher temperatures and less precipitation, are likely to cause severe seasonal water scarcity. As decision support for the planning of effective measures to increase drought resilience, we modelled the construction of two upstream reservoirs combined with higher irrigation efficiency. We find that unmet water demand can be reduced by up to 97.7% by these measures.

Pages: 793-818

Research Article

Small-scale irrigation expansion along the dam-regulated Tekeze River in Northern Ethiopia

Sofie Annysa,b, Steven Van Passelb, Joost Desseinc,d, Tesfaalem Ghebreyohannese, Enyew Adgof and Jan Nyssena

aDepartment of Geography, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; bDepartment of Engineering Management, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; cDepartment of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium; dFlanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Merelbeke, Belgium; eDepartment of Geography and Environmental Studies, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; fDepartment of Natural Resource Management, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Contact: Sofie Annys | Email: sofie.annys@ugent.be


Based on extensive field information, farmer-led small-scale irrigation systems along the dam-regulated Tekeze River is investigated and the likelihood of future irrigation expansion within the area with modelled potential is discussed, considering facilitating and hampering factors. Due to dam-induced hydrologic alterations, downstream socio-ecological systems have strongly transformed as the irrigated area has quadrupled and the post-dam potential for perennial crop cultivation has attracted numerous migrant investors to the area, inducing inequalities but also providing opportunities. Future dam construction should involve tailored policy interventions to facilitate irrigation expansion, while safeguarding equal and sustainable access to water and land.

Pages: 819–840

Research Article

Rethinking livelihood resilience after development-induced displacement and resettlement: a case study of Qianping Reservoir

Yichun Gonga, Kaiwen Yaoa, Ruilian Zhangb, Bingwen Liua and Feilong Wanga

aSchool of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China; bCentre for Social Responsibility in Mining, Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

Contact: Kaiwen Yao | Email: kwyao@ncepu.edu.cn


To explore the livelihood problems following development-induced displacement and resettlement, this article selects 234 affected families of the Qianping Reservoir in China and builds a livelihood resilience inferred measurement model to assess and verify their livelihood resilience. The research shows that households that have a reasonable income structure or that resettled near their original residence have higher livelihood resilience. Moreover, the proportion of agricultural income and physical capital have the most significant impact on livelihood resilience compared with other socio-economic indicators. These findings can help individuals make better preparations in advance and guide governments to do well in assistance after resettlement.

Pages: 841–864

Research Article

Drivers of profitability and productivity growth in the English and Welsh water industry since privatization

María Molinos-Senantea and Alexandros Maziotisa,b

aDepartamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago; bDepartment of Business, New York College, Athens, Greece

Contact: María Molinos-Senante | Email: mmolinos@uc.cl


In this article we investigate the relationship between productivity and profitability, and their drivers: changes in outputs, output and input prices, technical  change, technical efficiency change, and scale and mark-up effects. We apply profit decomposition to the water and sewerage companies in England and Wales in 1991–2016. We find that over this period their profit and productivity increased by 4% and 2.5% per year, respectively. Technical change, scale and mark-up effects, and output and input prices contributed positively to profit growth, while the impact of technical efficiency change, although positive, was small.

Pages: 865–881

Research Article

Alternative solutions for long missing streamflow data for sustainable water resources management

Buket Mestaa, O. Burak Akgunb and Elcin Kentelb

aDepartment of Earth System Science, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey; bDepartment of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey

Contact: Elcin Kentel | Email: ekentel@metu.edu.tr


Sustainable water resources management requires long time series of streamflow data. In this study, a Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy rule-based (FRB) model is developed to reconstruct long periods of missing daily streamflow data which is a common problem in developing countries. The FRB model uses observations of neighbouring stream gauges, and thus is advantageous regarding data and time requirement compared to physical models. With the proper set of inputs, the FRB model provides better estimates than the hydrological model at two of the studied four stream gauges in the Meric–Ergene Basin. Filling long datagaps with FRB models will facilitate the development of realistic water management strategies.

Pages: 882–905