FINANCING IRRIGATION WATER MANAGEMENT AND INFRASTRUCTURE: A REVIEW (pp. 321-349)
Frank A. Ward, Department of Agricultural Economics and Agricultural Business, New Mexico State University
Abstract: Many of the world’s irrigated regions face the problem of aging infrastructure and declining revenues to maintain and repair irrigation structures. Policy debates over climate change, population growth, food security, and impacts of irrigation on ecological assets compound the problem, raising the urgency to invest in irrigation infrastructure. Meanwhile, a global call for full-cost recovery for water infrastructure investments increases the need to identify the economic value of sustaining irrigation infrastructure. Despite the growing debates, little comprehensive research has been conducted summarizing factors affecting irrigation investments or policy options available for sustaining irrigation infrastructure. This paper reviews research on factors affecting the level and value of irrigation infrastructure investments. It also reviews research on policy instruments for sustaining irrigation infrastructure, considering both market and institutional approaches. Several market approaches have been found to have the potential to influence the economic attractiveness of investments in irrigation infrastructure. These include infrastructure subsidies, clearing titles to water rights, marginal cost pricing, and non-volumetric pricing. Institutional approaches described include regulatory measures, transboundary agreements, and water user associations. Results may contribute to current debates in various regional, national, and international forums on whether and how water should be priced for agricultural use.
ISSUES AND OPTIONS RELATING TO SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF IRRIGATION WATER IN JAPAN: A CONCEPTUAL DISCUSSION (pp. 351-364)
Mikitaro Shobayashia, Yukio Kinoshitab and Mari Takedac
aDepartment of Intercultural Communication, Gakushuin Women’s College, Tokyo, Japan; bFaculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka, Iwate, Japan Mari Takeda, Graduate School of Frontier Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; cGraduate School of Frontier Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Contact: Mikitaro Shobayashi, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Improving the efficiency of paddy irrigation, the dominant water consumer, is an important policy issue for the sustainable management of water resources in Japan. This needs to be consistent with the agricultural support policy, considering that Japan is now facing a drastic change in its agricultural policy environment. A key question is whether the irrigation sector policy developed for constructing new facilities under the agricultural price support regime could address issues associated with the new agricultural policy environment. This paper tries to discuss these aspects conceptually and proposes the general direction policy reform in the irrigation sector should take.
ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN IRRIGATED AREAS OF ANDALUSIA (pp. 365-379)
Noelina Rodríguez-Ferrero, Manuel Salas-Velasco and María Teresa Sánchez-Martí, University of Granada, Department of Applied Economics, Granada, Spain
Contact: Noelina Rodríguez-Ferrero, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Expansionist policies in irrigation in Andalusia have led to an intensive use of water, which has depleted rivers and aquifers and led to high added costs in terms of hidden subsidies for irrigation farming. Water scarcity has become an increasing social and economic worry for those responsible for regulating water policies and has created problems among users, especially when it is an important factor for production purposes. This empirical study analyses the differences that exist in terms of economic efficiency in the 156 irrigation areas of Andalusia. To achieve rational management of irrigation water it is essential to consider economic efficiency and carry out comparative studies to identify the causes that contribute to differences in terms of efficiency. This paper describes the conclusions of a study into economic rationality in the use of such a scarce resource as water.
ATTITUDES AND POLICY RESPONSES TO AUSTRALIAN FARM DAM SAFETY THREATS: COMPARATIVE LESSONS FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGERS (pp. 381-402)
John D. Pisaniello, Supreme Court of South Australia and University of South Australia
Abstract: The safety of medium- and large-scale dams is addressed in many countries, but limited attention is paid to problems associated with smaller farm dams, particularly potential cumulative threats posed in larger catchments. Farmers in Australia often overlook the common law obligation to review and design dams in line with current standards. The result is downstream communities, property and environment placed at risk. This paper demonstrates the significance of this problem with case studies undertaken in policy-absent South Australia, policy-driven Victoria and policy-strong New South Wales, including empirical evidence on attitudes and responses of landholders and key policy actors. This demonstrates need for supervision of small dams. Tasmania is included as a case study as it represents a policy-model state on how this can be best achieved in line with international best-practice. The four cases provide useful comparative lessons. Policy guidelines applicable to any jurisdiction are included; their application is illustrated with the case studies. The paper considers the policy implications of these lessons for Australia in particular and the world in general.
POLICY INSIGHTS ON USER CHARGES FROM A RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROJECT: A COUNTER-INTUITIVE VIEW FROM SOUTH INDIA (pp. 403-421)
Vibhu Nayara and A.J. Jamesb
aTamil Nadu Integrated Agricultural Modernization and Water Resources Management Project, Chennai, India; bPragmatix Research & Advisory Services Pvt. Ltd, Gurgaon, India
Contact: Vibhu Nayar, e-mail: email@example.com
ABSTRACT: When government engineers work closely with rural communities to raise awareness of water as a scarce resource, greater community ownership results and water supply service delivery and user charge collections improve. This runs counter to the conventional hypothesis that (higher) user charges lead to more finances and hence, improved service delivery. More sustainable service delivery results when engineers adopt a non-prescriptive and flexible approach and work with communities—rather than impose targets of 100% collection of operation and maintenance costs from the outset, as is done widely. The key is attitudinal change, driven in this case by democratization of governance undertaken along with engineers in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
WEAKENING OF THE ASIAN SUMMER MONSOON AND ITS IMPACT ON THE PRECIPITATION PATTERN IN CHINA (pp. 423-439)
Yihui Ding, Yanju Liu, Ying Sun and Yafang Song, National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, Peoples Republic of China
Contact: Ding Yihui, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: The present paper provides a scientific assessment of the inter-decadal variability of the Asian summer monsoon and its significant effect on precipitation patterns in China. The paper consists of four parts. The first part shows the observed inter-decadal weakening of the Asian summer monsoon since the end of 1970s. The second part describes the impact of the weakening Asian summer monsoon on precipitation in China, which caused the major monsoon rainbelt to shift southward from North China to South China over about 30 years, with a 60-80 oscillation dominating. The third part projects the future change of the Asian summer monsoon in the warmer climate by using IPCC AR4 climate models. It has been found that major monsoon rainfall belts in East Asia will move northward in the 2040s, with summer precipitation in North China increasing considerably and stably. Finally, in the fourth part, the implication of the adaptation to the above climate change and related water management will be discussed including the water transport engineering project from the Yangtze River to the Yellow River and North China.
MEASURING WATER AFFORDABILITY: A PROPOSAL FOR URBAN CENTRES IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (pp. 441-458)
María de los Ángeles García-Valiñasa, Roberto Martínez-Espiñeirab and Francisco González-Gómezc
aToulouse School of Economics, Laboratory of Natural Resource Economics (LERNA-INRA), France; bDepartment of Economics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada; cDepartment of Applied Economics, University of Granada, Spain
Contact: Francisco González-Gómez, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Although water, at least for basic needs, should be accessible to everyone, many families have trouble paying their water bill. Assessments of water affordability inform the design of water tariffs aimed at ensuring universal access to water. In order to carry out such assessments, managers must have instruments available that accurately reflect the state of water affordability. In this article, a critique is presented of one of the indicators traditionally used to measure water affordability and a proposal of an alternative way of measuring water affordability is put forward. The empirical analysis is applied to data from 301 communities in southern Spain.
WATER MANAGEMENT IN SAN LUIS POTOSÍ METROPOLITAN AREA, MEXICO (pp. 459-475)
Sandra Martineza, Oscar Escolerob and Stefanie Kralischa
aPosgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; bDepartamento Geología Regional, Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Contact: Sandra Martinez, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: The San Luis Potosí Metropolitan Zone, one of the key urban centres of Mexico’s semi-arid central region, has experienced remarkable socio-economic development in recent decades, but it confronts inadequate water services in a context of scarcity, inefficient management, and lack of planning, investment and technology. Strategies currently being undertaken include efforts to improve the efficiency of wells, reduce leakage, sanitize the area, and develop alternative water supplies from neighbouring catchments. The challenge today is to move from considerations that focus mainly on supply management, to an approach based on integrated water resources management. This represents an immense task, but innovative water technologies, management systems and institutional arrangements are necessary in order to meet the multiple objectives of equity, environmental integrity and economic efficiency.
ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS AND WATER QUALITY: A STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW (pp. 477-493)
Patricia Burkhardt-Holm, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Abstract: Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds which interfere with the hormone system and may adversely affect the health and reproduction of man and animals. These compounds comprise heavy metals and organic chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, plasticizers, surfactants, pharmaceuticals, natural and synthetic estrogens as well as phyto- and mycoestrogens. In this review, an overview of most frequently asked questions is presented. These questions are: What are the sources of endocrine disruptors we find in the environment? What concentrations do we have in our wastewater? What happens in the wastewater treatment plant? Do we have EDs in other water bodies also? Is drinking water at risk? Why is it so difficult to prove whether EDs are harmful? Could sperm decline and fertility disturbance in man be due to EDs? Could breast cancer be due to exposure to EDs? What are alterations in wildlife and fish? What can be done?
Embracing Uncertainty to Improve Water Management, with Examples from Saven River Basins
Global Change: Impacts on Water and Food Security, edited by Claudia Ringler, Asit K. Biswas and Sarah A. Cline, Berlin, Springer, 2010
Regional Workshop on Water Saving Irrigation Practices in Rice-based Canal Systems, Bangkok, Thailand, 8-9 Octubre 2009