Festschrift in Honour of Yutaka Takahasi
YUTAKA TAKAHASI: A TRIBUTE (pp. 543-545)
Asit K. Biswas and Cecilia Tortajada, Third World Centre for Water Management, Atizapán, Mexico
Abstract: This special issue is a tribute to the manifold contributions of a very special water scientist, Professor Yutaka Takashsi, whose work has significantly helped to improve wáter management practices and processes in the world in general and Japan in particular. In the 25-year history of this journal, we have never produced a single special issue as a tribute to any one individual. The fact that this is the first such tribute in a quarter century of the journal’s history is only one indication of the high esteem in which the water profession holds Professor Takahasi because of the importance, relevance, quality and impacts of his work.
HISTORY OF WATER MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN FROM THE END OF WORLD WAR II (pp. 547-553)
Yutaka Takahasi, Professor Emeritus, the University of Tokyo, Japan and Senior Programme Adviser, United National University, Japan
Abstract: The history of Japan after the Second World War is a dramatic story, which ranges from miserable poverty to an economic prosperity that reached a surprisingly high economic level, but is now suffering from a difficult downturn. To cope with the changing socio-economic transformation over 60 years, water management has also undergone a radical development, with large-scale river projects for flood control, water resources development and environmental measures. The Japanese experience would benefit current developing countries, especially Asian monsoon countries, because they are now actively developing flood control measures, water resources development projects and also conservation work.
TIME FOR A CHANGE IN JAPANESE WATER RESOURCES POLICY, PART 1: HISTORICAL REVIEW OF WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT POLICY AND CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE (pp. 555-564)
Katumi Musiakea and Toshio Koikeb
aFoundation of River & Watershed Environment Management, Japan; bGraduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Contact: Katumi Musiake, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: This paper reviews river administration from the Meiji era until the end of World War II, before discussing problems in water resources management after World War II. It shows that the serious floods, water shortages and pollution problems which occurred after World War II have been considerably improved by applying structural and non-structural measures, as well as by applying new technologies developed in each field. Based on a historical review of water resources management policy in Japan, the paper identifies new problems associated with climate change, population decrease, and the discussions on centralization or decentralization of the governance of water resources management in Japan.
TIME FOR A CHANGE IN JAPANESE WATER RESOURCES POLICY, PART 2: TOWARDS A PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK FOR ADAPTING TO CHANGES (pp. 565-570)
Toshio Koikea and Taikan Okib
aGraduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Japan; bInstitute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Contact: Toshio Koike, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: The impacts of climate change and a population decrease on water resources management are now recognized as being serious in Japan. Scientific and technological methods of assessing changes in hazards should be adopted to obtain appropriate inputs to help with adaptation. A comprehensive assessment of risks induced by the changes should be made to quantify socio-economic impacts on society, including complacency about the risks to life and environmental safety. It is necessary to assess combinations of measures and their feasibility and develop a proactive regional management body that promotes consensus building and mediates conflicts of interests by engaging the community.
TIME FOR A CHANGE IN JAPANESE WATER RESOURCES POLICY, PART 3: NATIONAL AND INSTITUTIONAL DIRECTIONS (pp. 571-578)
Taikan Okia and Katumi Musiakeb
aInstitute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan; bFoundation of River & Watershed Environment Management, Japan
Contact: Taikan Oki, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: The transition phase in river and water resources management in Japan is discussed from wider points of view, such as the decentralization of public governance, privatization of water management, grand design of the nation and water security. Historical developments, consequences and recent movements are introduced, and future directions are considered. Japan has the potential to integrate elemental knowledge and technologies into a system to solve world water issues, and to support the sustainability of healthy and sound conditions for human well-being in the world through providing a safe, stable and sustainable water management framework.
TOWARDS A NEW PHILOSOPHY OF RIVER ENGINEERING IN JAPAN (pp. 579-583)
Yutaka Takahasi, Professor Emeritus, The University of Tokyo, Japan and Senior Programme Adviser, United Nations University, Japan
Abstract: Rivers are an important part of nature. River regime always changes in accordance with natural law. Rivers react to human activity including river works, often with an undesirable effect. River management must be planned sensitively from upstream to the sea. River basin management is necessary for flood control, water resources development and conservation.
FROM FLOOD CONTROL TO AESTHETICS (pp. 585-591)
Augustin Berque, Ecole des hautes etudes en sciences sociales/CNRS, Paris, France
Abstract: In the IVth century AD in Southern China, and for the first time in human history, the word which took the meaning of ‘landscape’, was shanshui—’mountains and waters’. Essentially, river engineers who were concerned with flood control and irrigation had used it for centuries without aesthetical connotations, with the sense of ‘mountain waters’. These mountain waters were also the ‘abode of geniuses’ of the wilderness, hostile to humans. How did the mutation happen which transformed this hostile, repelling environment into a beautiful and alluring ‘landscape’? The paper shows that the logic of such processes can be equated with a predication, in which the subject (S) is the Earth, or nature, and the predicate (P) is a world, or culture. This relation can be represented with the following formula: r = S/P, which reads: ‘reality is S taken as P’.
COMPREHENSIVE RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT IN TAIWAN: CONTRIBUTIONS OF YUTAKA TAKAHASI (pp. 593-596)
Shen Chianga, Lung-Sheng Shieha, Fei-Yu Kuob, Chen-Tai Maoc and Fuu-Bor Shiaud
aNational Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction, Taiwan; bDepartment of Urban and Housing Development, Council for Economic Planning & Development, Executive Yuan, Taiwan; cDepartment of Sectoral Planning, Council for Economic Planning & Development, Executive Yuan, Taiwan; dFormer Chief Engineer, Engineering Service Center of Taiwan
Contact: Shen Chiang, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: In the past Taiwan invited many foreign scholars and professions for technical exchange visits to Taiwan. It was hoped that by reviewing experiences and policies in the areas of disaster prevention, land planning and environmental conservation with areas or countries, Taiwan could provide references for comprehensive river basin management policies. Of the many invited scholars, Yutaka Takahasi was one of the leaders in the field. The framework for river basin management includes many of his ideas.
BRINGING SAFE WATER TO PHNOM PENH’S CITY (pp. 597-609)
Ek Sonn Chan, Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority (PPWSA), Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Abstract: The Earth Summit in Johannesburg in 2002 reaffirmed the commitment to cut by half the number of people in the world with inadequate access to clean water and sanitation by the year 2015. Privatization or private provision have been advocated for urban water supplies. However, water utilities in many developing countries, including Asia, still operate within an inefficient and monopolistic environment with ineffective regulators. Cambodia’s Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority is unlike typical Asian water utilities. The previously decrepit and war-torn water supply system has been changed radically, from one with incompetent management which lost both water and customers, into a model public water utility with a 24-hour drinking water service, subsidies to the poor through connection fees and tariffs, non-revenue water reduced to 6.15%, and successful collection of bills increased to over 99%. This article describes the way in which the reforms have been achieved.
INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN A FEDERATIVE COUNTRY: THE CASE OF BRAZIL (pp. 611-628)
B.P.F. Bragaa, R. Flechab, P. Thomasb, W. Cardosob and A. C. Coelhoc
aUniversity of Sao Paulo, Water World Council (WWC), National Water Agency of Brazil (ANA); bNational Water Agency of Brazil (ANA); cColorado State University and National Water Agency of Brazil ( ANA)
Contact: B.P.F. Braga, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the water resources in Brazil: the country that holds 12% of the world’s fresh water and has one of the most modern and sophisticated water resources management systems. This system—the National Water Resources Management System (SINGREH)—introduced new paradigms into water management practices in Brazil, such as decentralization, the use of economic tools, and public participation. In particular, this paper describes the roles of the National Water Agency, the institution created to implement such a complex system, taking into account the federative character of the country. In addition, the paper reviews the main challenges of river basin management in Brazil, considering the existence of rivers under different jurisdictions—Federal and State—within a single river basin. The paper then analyses the implementation and evolution of water use charges and the water agency at the Piracicaba, Capivari and Judia river basins, as a study case. Those river basins are currently investing R$34 million in actions envisaged at the River Basin Water Plan. At the end, the paper concludes that global changes will bring new and important challenges to water resources management around the world in general, and in Brazil, in particular.
TAKING GOOD CARE OF PROJECT-AFFECTED-FAMILIES IN DAM CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS (pp. 629-639)
Mikiyasu Nakayamaa, Naruhiko Takesadab and Ryo Fujikurac
aDepartment of International Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Japan; bFaculty of Economics, Meikai University, Japan; cFaculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Japan
Contact: Mikiyasu Nakayama, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Professor Yutaka Takahasi ought to be regarded as a harbinger of Japanese researchers in terms of his involvement in the issue of dealing with project-affected-families (PAFs) in dam construction projects. The insights Professor Takahasi showed in the case of the Shimouke Dam proved to be solid and useful, not only for that particular dam but also for other dam construction projects in Japan. The ways and means of taking good care of PAFs, as suggested by Professor Takahasi for the PAFs of the Shimouke Dam, failed to draw the attention of the Ministry of Construction. It led to a delay in properly dealing with PAFs of dam construction projects abroad that were financed by the Japanese government. Post-project reviews carried out on these dam construction projects revealed that several useful and practical lessons may be learned from Japanese past cases and that such lessons are of use for dam projects in developing nations. Academic contributions by Professor Takahasi have led to much rational and thoughtful methodology about taking good care of PAFs both in Japan and abroad.
IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMMES TO REDUCE NITRATE POLLUTION FROM AGRICULTURE IN BRITTANY, FRANCE (pp. 641-656)
Leonard Ortolanoa, Samuel Baumontb and Gabrielle Puzc
aStanford University, Stanford, USA; bLogica, 92 097 La Defense Cedex, France; cThe World Bank, Washington DC, USA
Contact: Leonard Ortolano, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Programmes to reduce nitrate pollution from Brittany’s farms involve regulations, subsidies and communications with farmers. Complexity and frequent changes in programmes have contributed to farmers’ investment decisions that look unsound in retrospect and to the inability of farmers to keep track of requirements. Regulatory complexity and changes have also led regulators to incur increased coordination costs and to experience losses of credibility. Moreover, compliance costs plus regulators’ inability to independently verify compliance give farmers incentives to ignore some requirements. Enforcement of regulations was low during the 1990s, but monitoring (and associated changes in compliance) increased notably after 2000 following pressure from the European Union in response to water quality violations in Brittany.
ALIGNING STAKEHOLDERS’ PREFERENCES WITH PUBLIC TRUST IN MANAGING IN-STREAM FLOW: THE CASE OF HAWAI’I (pp. 657-679)
L.D. Sheild, C. Gopalakrishnan and C. Chan-Halbrendt, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai’i, USA
Abstract: Water plays a key role in the maintenance of energy, agriculture, biodiversity, ecosystems, cultural practices and human health. As a common-pool resource with rivalries, the multiple competing uses of water are often in conflict. Water allocation decisions in Hawai’i today are not based on people’s preferences. The objective of this paper is to identify and quantify stakeholder preferences pertaining to water management programmes in order to improve water policy design. This is accomplished through the use of conjoint choice experiment surveys. The survey data were analyzed using Latent Class Analysis to determine latent heterogeneity in respondents’ preferences. The relative importance of water management attributes was evaluated and willingness-to-pay values were estimated. Results showed that the majority of respondents weighed preserving stream health and Hawaiian cultural practices in water allocation decisions and were willing to pay $4.53 per month per household to improve stream health to an excellent condition. These results highlight the need to strongly align watershed-level preferences to better balance in-stream and offstream demands to help guide water managers to make more effective water allocation decisions.
Water Management in 2020 and Beyond, edited by Asit K. Biswas, Cecilia Tortajada and Rafael Izquierdo, Berlin, Springer, 2009