Special Issue: Water For Food and Ecosystems
INTRODUCTION: WATER FOR FOOD AND ECOSYSTEMS: HOW TO CUT WHICH PIE? (pp. 3-139)
J.F. Warnera, P.S. Bindrabanb and H. Van Keulenb
aIrrigation and Water Engineering Group, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands; bPlant Research International, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Contact: J.F. Warner, e-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Two decades of awareness-raising and dialogues have clearly spelled out the water-related challenges the world is facing. Still, not enough concrete improvements have been realized on key issues, such as the coverage of potable water and sanitation services, and an adequate balance between water for food and ecosystems. Addressing these problems remains a continuous challenge that can only be confronted with an integrated approach, comprising knowledge generation, permanent communication between very different stakeholders, adequate capacity-building and continuous learning, and innovative technology development. With a view to the Fourth World Water Forum in Mexico, this contribution reviews such issues, drawing lessons from experience in a program on Water for Food and Ecosystems (funded by Netherlands Partners for Water initiative) and related on-going work in this area carried out by Wageningen University and Research Centre working closely with partner institutions inside and outside the Netherlands. The debate is structured around three key dimensions (i) balancing human and natural values of water, (ii) multiple stakeholder involvement, (iii) technological innovation. Visualized in the Triangle of Sustainability, the study recognizes the advances made in integrating political processes such as multi-stakeholder negotiation in water resource management as a way of achieving a better balance between the values of water, but warn against neglecting the potential for technical advances that can help increasing the size of the ‘cake’ as a whole.
MORE SUSTAINABLE PARTICIPATION? MULTI-STAKEHOLDER PLATFORMS FOR INTEGRATED CATCHMENT MANAGEMENT (pp. 15-35)
Jeroen F. Warner, Irrigation and Water Engineering Group, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands
E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: This paper argues for realistic expectations of Multi-Stakeholder Platforms (MSPs). MSPs are currently a hot topic in the water policy community, despite voices of disillusionment with participation in development work. Research carried out in Peru, Argentina, India, South Africa and Belgium suggests that platforms certainly can prove helpful networks in communication on and management of competing claims to water, managing coordination problems, coalition-building and or visioning. However, experience has put paid to implicit and explicit expectations from platforms, especially with a view to the integration of knowledge and actors. It makes no sense to separate distributive negotiation and politics (‘bad’) from integrative negotiation and social learning (‘good’). Platforms mix both modalities of negotiation, and actors may strategically withhold or contribute their knowledge. Second, no significant power sharing (vertical inclusion) takes place. A typology of MSPs ranked by influence finds no platform with a significant mandate. It is suggested that MSPs are an institutional bargaining space that is especially useful visioning and information exchange, but cautioned not to insist that ‘water MSPs’ confine themselves to water issues only, and to institutionalized groups only. For some stakeholders, the communication and information process itself is good enough, but others will want results: ‘food on the table’. Some stakeholders will never join as they do not see how it benefits them and/or because they find it more advantageous to work around the platform. Initiators of platforms for stakeholder involvement in water management should therefore be very clear on what the participatory process aims at and can realistically achieve.
FORMAL LAW AND LOCAL WATER CONTROL IN THE ANDEAN REGION: A FIERCELY CONTESTED FIELD (pp. 37-48)
Hugo De Vosa, Rutgerd Boelensb and Rocio Bustamantec
aDepartment of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands; bInternational Coordinator, Water Law and Indigenous Rights program (WALIR), Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; cCoordinator for WALIR in Bolivia and researcher with Centro AGUA, San Simon University, Cochabamba, Bolivia
Contact: Hugo De Vos, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Water access and control rights of peasant and indigenous communities in Andean countries are threatened. Vertical state law and intervention practices, as well as new privatization policies generally ignore, discriminate or undermine local normative frameworks. Recognition of diverse local rights and management frameworks is crucial for improving rural livelihoods but also for national food security. The paper outlines some important findings from the WALIR program (Water Law and Indigenous Rights). It analyses official water policy in the Andean region in relation to local socio-legal repertoires. The paper concludes that support of civil society platforms and peasant and indigenous groups for contestation or reformulation of official law is crucial for the survival of local management systems.
INTERACTION BETWEEN STAKEHOLDERS AND RESEARCH FOR INTEGRATED RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT (pp. 49-60)
JR.H.G. Jongmana and C.R. Padovanib
aAlterra, Wageningen UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands; bEMBRAPA-Pantanal, Corumbá, Brazil
Contact: R.H.G. Jongman, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Integrated Water Management calls for basin-wide coordination of activities related to land and water use. The need for multi-stakeholder involvement, the necessity lo integrate scientific approaches and local information, the process of mutual communication, the results of discussions on integrated water and river management at the basin scale and decisions for further action are reviewed and illustrated. In the Pantanal, Brazil, stakeholders have had an essential role in developing knowledge for decision-making in river management Integrated knowledge was generated by combining different types of scientific knowledge with visions, information and solutions developed in cooperation with local, regional and national stakeholders. The process showed that this integrated knowledge was essential for involvement of stakeholders in problem formulation, identification of solutions and decision-making on preferred developments. Stakeholders have helped lo direct the research process by bringing in ideas about causes and solutions and adding local and regional knowledge lo the research process. Once involved in the process, stakeholders took on board new ideas and visions, and were critical about solutions. Research is important in gaining insight in complex processes (climate, hydrology, geology, ecosystems and politics); stakeholders display a wide knowledge of the regional history that generally is not documented and inaccessible lo scientists. The conclusion is that cooperation between stakeholders and researchers in this case has started a chain of actions that is still continuing.
IRRIGATION PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN CRIMEA, UKRAINE (pp. 61-78)
S.S. Pavlova, G.J. Roerinka, P.J.G.J. Hellegersb and V.F. Popovychc
aAlterra, Wageningen UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands; bLEI, Wageningen UR, The Hague, The Netherlands; cIHELR-Crimean Branch, Crimea, Ukraine
Contact: G.J. Roerink, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: After the collapse of the Soviet Union the performance of irrigated agriculture decreased drastically in Ukraine, due to problems related to the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Before formulating recommendations on required actions to modify this problematic situation, insight is needed about ( i) whether irrigated agriculture is profitable under a market economy; (ii) to what extent the irrigation costs can be recovered from the farmers; and (iii) where irrigation costs can be reduced. Therefore, an economic performance assessment of irrigated agriculture is performed for the North Crimea Canal (NCC) irrigation system in Crimea, Ukraine on the basis of a number of indicators. A spatial analysis is required, because in the remote parts of NCC water has to be lifted several times before it reaches the field and costs of water delivery consequently vary. Analysing irrigation performance in a spatial environment is an extension of existing work The analysis shows that (i) irrigated agriculture is profitable under a market economy although costs vary considerably (due to water lifting and irrigation technology used); (ii) the irrigation costs can be recovered by farmers; and (iii) can be reduced substantially at distribution and farm level.
CAN IRRIGATION WATER USE BE GUIDED BY MARKET FORCES? THEORY AND PRACTICE (pp. 79-86)
Petra J.G.J. Hellegersa and Chris J. Perryb
aLEI-Wageningen UR, The Hague, The Netherlands; bWater Resources Economist, Devon, UK
Contact: Petra J.G.J. Hellegers, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: This paper provides insight into the relevance of market forces to typical problems found in irrigated agriculture. It first considers the theoretical basis for the use of economic instruments, such as volumetric water charges and tradable water rights, then considers their usefulness in the context of five case studies of irrigated areas, in Egypt, India, Indonesia, Morocco and Ukraine. The case studies confirm that competition for scarce water and shortage of funds are widespread. To assess the suitability of economic instruments to achieve water management objectives, insight is provided into the current price paid for irrigation water, the cost of service provision and the value to irrigators. It becomes clear that there is a big gap between the pace and value of irrigation water. This means that a considerable increase in the price of water is needed to balance supply and demand, which would reduce farm economic welfare substantially. This socio-political problem, plus the technical and administrative complexity of measuring water, makes water pricing an unsuitable approach to balance supply and demand.
TRANSFORMING INUNDATED RICE CULTIVATION (pp. 87-100)
P.S. Bindrabana, H. Hengsdijka, W. Caob, Q. Shic, T.M. Thiyagarajand, W. Van Der Krogte, I.P. Wardanaa,f
aPlant Research International, Wageningen UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands; bKey Laboratory of Crop Growth Regulation, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, China; cCollege of Agriculture, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, China; dAgricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India; eWL Delft Hydraulics, Delft, The Netherlands; fResearch Institute for Rice, Sukarnandi, Indonesia
Contact: P.S. Bindraban, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Almost 9O% of global rice is produced under inundated conditions, i.e. in fields with a standing water layer of 5 to 15 cm during the major part of the growing season. Recently, inundated rice cultivation has come under pressure due to declining availability of water and labour, increasing demand for rice and other food items, increasing claims on limited land resources, and increasing concern for environmental pollution. These changes in ecological, social and economic conditions call for a transformation in rice cultivation to comply with current and future developments. This paper focuses on management practices at the field scale affecting water productivity and other system characteristics and illustrates the consequences of some of these practices at the farm level based on case studies, while the promise of reduced water input in rice cultivation for options of regional allocation of water is demonstrated for a basin that supplies the metropolitan region of Jakarta. The paper discusses future options and opportunities for transforming inundated rice cultivation to comply with changing conditions.
REDUCING WATER USE FOR ANIMAL PRODUCTION THROUGH AQUACULTURE (pp. 101-113)
M.C.J. Verdegem, R.U. Bosma and J.A.J. Verreth, Aquaculture and Fisheries Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Contact: M.C.J. Verdegem, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Animals fed formulated diets indirectly consume large quantities of water. Globally, about 1.2 m3 of water is needed to produce 1 kg of grain used in animal feeds. Cattle in feedlots consume about 7 kg of feed concentrate to gain 1 kg in weight. For pigs this is close to 4 kg and for poultry slightly more than 2 kg of concentrate. Fish or crustaceans require less than 2 kg of grain concentrate for each kg produced, making them the most efficiently producing animals in terms of feed-associated water use. Non-feed-associated water use can also be considerable, and a comparison was made in total water use between aquatic and terrestrial animals. On-farm water use for terrestrial animals, including drinking, but excluding water for cooling animals or cleaning their sheds is only 1 % of feed-associated water use. However, on-farm water use in aquaculture can reduces on-farm water use per kg product, and only intensive aquaculture production systems are equally water-efficient as terrestrial animal farming systems. Within existing aquaculture pond systems reductions in water use can be achieved through (1) selection of feed ingredients that need little water to be produced; (2) enhancement of within-system feed production through periphyton-based technology; and (3) integration of aquaculture with agriculture. Still, these approaches will not make pond aquaculture more water-efficient than terrestrial animal production systems. That can only be attained in recirculating aquaculture systems and systems producing fish as a by-product of wastewater treatment. Currently, the most promising approach is to concentrate on further development of brackish and marine aquaculture, as such systems use small or negligible amounts of non-feed-associated fresh water.
ASSESSING OPTIONS TO INCREASE WATER PRODUCTIVITY IN IRRIGATED RIVER BASINS USING REMOTE SENSING AND MODELLING TOOLS (pp. 115-133)
J.C. Van Dama, R. Singha, J.J.E. Bessembinderb, P.A. Leffelaarc, W.G.M. Bastiaanssend, R.K. Jhorare, J.G. Kroesf, P. Droogersg
aWater Resources, Wageningen UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands; bRoyal Dutch Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands; cPlant Production Systems, Wageningen UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands; dWaterWatch, Wageningen, The Netherlands; eSoil and Water Engineering, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Haryana, India; fAlterra, Wageningen UR, Wageningen; gThe Netherlands; FutureWater, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Contact: J.C. Van Dam, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: In regions where water is more scarce than land the water productivity concept (e.g. crop yield per unit of water utilized) provides a useful framework to analyse crop production increase or water savings in irrigated agriculture. Generic crop and soil models were applied at field and regional scale, together with geographical and satellite data to analyse water productivity in Sirsa District (India). In this district certain parts show a serious decline in groundwater levels and water shortage, while other parts experience a serious rise of groundwater levels, causing water logging and salinization. The regional analysis showed a large spatial variability of water productivity, net groundwater recharge and salinization. Scenario analysis showed that improved crop husbandry, reallocation of canal water from fresh to saline groundwater areas and reduction of seepage losses in saline groundwater areas are effective measures to increase the overall water productivity and to attain sustainable irrigation in Sirsa District.
THE ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF WATER MANAGEMENT CHOICES IN THE UPPER NIGER RIVER: DEVELOPMENT OF DECISION SUPPORT METHODS (pp. 135-156)
Leo Zwartsa, Pieter Van Beukeringb, Bakary Konéc, Eddy Wymengad and Douglas Taylorc
aRijkswaterstaat RIZA, Lelystad, The Netherlands; bInstitute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; cWetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands; dAltenburg & Wymenga Ecological Consultants, Veenwouden, The Netherlands
Contact: Douglas Taylor, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: One million people in the Inner Niger Delta make a living from arable farming, fisheries and livestock. Upstream dams (one built for electricity generation and one for irrigation) affect this downstream multifunctional use of water. Additionally, the Inner Niger Delta, which is one of the largest Ramsar sites in the world, is a hotspot of biodiversity and accommodates two of the largest known breeding colonies of large wading birds in Africa and in addition, is a vital part of the eco-regional network, supporting up to 3 to 4 million staging waterbirds, residents and migrants from all over Europe and western Asia. The hydrological and related ecological conditions in the Inner Delta largely determine the population size of these waterbird species. The major aim of the three-year study was to develop a decision-support system for river management in the Upper Niger, in which ecological and socio-economical impacts and benefits of dams and irrigation systems can be analysed in relation to different water management scenarios. The study involves various components: hydrology, arable fanning, livestock, fisheries, ecology and socio-economics. An economic analysis has been conducted to determine the role of dams in the economy of the Inner Niger Delta and the Upper Niger region. By innovatively combining the above information on hydrology, ecology, fisheries, and agriculture, the study shows that building new dams is not an efficient way to increase economic growth and reduce poverty in the region. In fact, such efforts are counter-effective. Instead, development efforts should be aimed at improving the efficiency of the existing infrastructure, as well as of current economic activities in the Inner Niger Delta itself. This approach will also provide greater certainty for the essential eco-regional network functioning of the Inner Delta.
INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HYDROLOGY AND ECOLOGY IN FIRE DEGRADED TROPICAL PEAT SWAMP FORESTS (pp. 157- 174)
J.H.M. Wöstena, J. Van Den Bergb, P. Van Eijkc, G.J.M. Geversd, W.B.J.T. Giesene, A. Hooijerf, Aswandi Idrisg, P.H. Leenmanc, Dipa Satriadi Raisg, C. Sideriusa, M.J. Silviush, N. Suryadiputrah, and Iwan Tricahyo Wibisonoh
aAlterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; bAgricultural Economics Research Institute, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; cWageningen University, Centre for Ecosystem Studies, The Netherlands; dInternational Agricultural Centre, Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; eArcadis Euroconsult, the Netherlands; fWL/Delft Hydraulics, The Netherlands; gJambi University, Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia; hWetlands International, The Netherlands and Indonesia
Contact: Henk Wösten, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Interrelationships between hydrology and ecology are established for the Air Hitam Laut watershed in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. The developed relational diagram shows how modelled regional groundwater levels and flooding patterns are related to the occurrence of different vegetation types in this endangered peatland watershed. In dry conditions when groundwater levels are deeper than 1 m below soil surface, fire disasters are unavoidable. When areas susceptible to fire actually burn and both vegetation and peat disappear, the total inundated area will expand with a factor five. In wet conditions with groundwater levels of more than 1 m above soil surface for a prolonged period of time, flooding creates lakes where no plant species can regrow. In the intermediate range, rehabilitation of different plant species is promising and is related to the actual hydrological regime.
International Workshop on Transboundary Water Management, Helsinki, Finland, 17–19 August 2005