Special Issue: Urban Water Management for Developing Countries
URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING ARID COUNTRIES (pp. 7-20)
Walid A. Abderrahman, Manager, Water Section, Centre For Environment and Water, The Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia
Abstract: Urbanization, industrialization and rapid population growth in developing countries of the Arabian Peninsula are putting increasing pressure on local water authorities and water planners to satisfy the growing urban water and sanitation demands. In the Arabian Peninsula, water resources are limited, average rainfall is low and the seawater and brackish water desalination in addition to limited groundwater resources are the major water supply sources. The population increased from about 17.688 million in 1970 to 38.52 million in 1995 and is expected to reach 81.25 million in 2025. The urban population is expected to rise from 60% in 1995 to more than 80% in 2025. The domestic water demand is expected to rise from 2863 million cubic metres (MCM) in 1990 to about 4264 MCM in 2000 and 10580 MCM in 2025. In Saudi Arabia, the population increased by 143.6% between 1970 and 1995; and it is expected to reach about 40.426 million in 2025, with about 80% urban population. The domestic water demand in the Kingdom is expected to be about 2350 MCM in 2000 and 6450 MCM in 2025. Specialized agencies have been established for water production and distribution, and for wastewater collection, treatment and reuse. Special legislation has been introduced to manage water demands and to protect the interests of the community and its natural resources. Fifty-seven costly desalination plants have been constructed in the Peninsula on the Gulf and Red Sea coasts, as well as water transmission lines to transport the desalinated water to coastal and inland major cities. The seawater desalination unit cost is about US$0.70/m3 for a large desalination plant with energy priced at world prices. More than $30 billion has been invested on water and sanitation projects. Present desalination production is about 46% of the total domestic demand, and the rest is pumped from deep and shallow aquifers. In general, fragmented legislation and institutional arrangements and low water charges have indirectly resulted in over-usage of domestic water, production of excessive quantities of wastewater, significant leakage, and enhancement of shallow water-table formation and rise in some cities. Facing the challenges of satisfying the growing urban water demands requires several essential measures such as: (a) introduction of new technologies to reduce water demands, and losses, and to enhance wastewater recycling and water conservation; (b) the updating of legislation to coordinate both responsibilities and actions among different water agencies; (c) the introduction of a strong and transparent regulatory framework to adopt different forms of water supply privatization, to reduce the costs of building, operation and maintenance of water and sanitation facilities, and to improve the level of services and billing, leakage and wastewater collection and treatment; (d) an increase in water tariffs to reflect the actual value of the water, and to enhance the awareness of public as to the value of water; and (e) development of short-term and long-term national water plans based on realistic water demand forecasting.
URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO BANGLADESH (pp. 21-33)
Hamidur Rahman Khana and Quamrul Islam Siddiqueb
aConsulting Water Resources Engineer, Bangladesh; bChairman, Power Development Board, WAPDA, Bangladesh
E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Abstract: Worldwide, urban population is forecast to more than double from about 2.5 billion in 1994 to some 5.1 billion in 2025. Urbanization is increasingly located in developing countries: in 1970, 50% of the population lived in urban areas in these countries; this rose to 66% in 1994 and is forecast to be close to 80% by 2020 (United Nations, 1995). Cities in developing countries report shortages of sources for raw water, as well as the basic infrastructure for provision of urban household, industrial and commercial water supply. Sources for water and protection of water quality will indeed become more critical with more cases emerging of severe shortages that directly affect daily life.
PUBLIC SECTOR ALTERNATIVES TO WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PRIVATIZATION: CASE STUDIES (pp. 35-55)
Emanuele Lobina and David Hall, Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, University of Greenwich, UK
Abstract: The paper presents a consideration of public sector operations as an alternative to the privatization of water and sewerage services. Cross-country case studies of publicly owned enterprises which have succeeded in reconciling efficiency and social purposes and carrying out structural and managerial changes are compared with some experiences of privatized concessions. Overall, public enterprises appear no less efficient that private companies, while being capable of development-oriented consideration of public interests.
EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONS FOR WATER MANAGEMENT (pp. 57-71)
Paul R. Holmes, Mount Nicholson Consulting, Bicester, UK
Abstract: International research into the effectiveness of organizations for water pollution control showed that those with more bureaucratic characteristics are less effective in providing a service. Bureaucratic organizations tend to be more prevalent in the less economically developed countries, and conventional capacity-building efforts may make this problem worse. Changing an organization’s structure and culture radically is difcult, expensive and prone to failure, so more practical alternatives were sought. A model was developed to show the relationship between an organization’s strategy and its goals. An organization will be more effective in meeting stakeholder goals if its structure, style and objectives are kept in harmony, and its bureaucratic characteristics are kept in check.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF WATER PROJECTS IN MEXICO (pp. 73-87)
Cecilia Tortajada, Third World Centre for Water Management, Atizapán, Estado de Mexico, Mexico, and CIIEMAD-IPN, Mexico
Abstract: Mexico is well ahead of many developed and developing countries in many ways, especially in terms of the numbers of water projects constructed, successful transfer of irrigation districts and development of informal markets for groundwater. However, the deterioration of the natural resources of the country, water resources being one of them, due to improper management is not improving the lifestyle of the vast majority of the population in any significant way. Accordingly, extensive modifications in the planning and management processes, including consideration of environmental and social factors and stakeholder participation, are urgently necessary for the water sector. This paper includes an analysis of the environmental impact statements of water projects in Mexico which are under the responsibility of the national water authority. It concludes that the unsatisfactory quality of the EIS of water projects in Mexico represents a serious limitation for developing any post-project evaluation or impact management. The institutional arrangements necessary for implementing the proposed measures are not defined, and the costs of implementing any recommendation are not properly budgeted for in the cost tables. Finally, not only should the reports be critically analysed, but also the whole process of their preparation and approval should be objectively and critically reviewed. This analysis should indicate clearly the shortcomings of the process, and then outline what steps could be taken to overcome them in order to ensure the sustainability of water projects in Mexico. The emphasis should be on producing a streamlined and implementable process.
THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF THE METROPOLITAN REGION OF SÃO PAULO: CONTRADICTORY AND ACCELERATED-SP BRAZIL-SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS (pp. 89-96)
Stela Goldenstein, Governo do Estado de São Paulo, SP, Brazil São Paulo
Abstract: This paper addresses the contradictions that can be seen within the process of economic and urban growth experienced by developing countries. Sao Paulo synthesizes these contradictions and is an example of how far people can go on environmental destruction when associated with social inequity.
INTEGRATED URBAN LEI RIVER (NORTH PAKISTAN) WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (pp. 97-117)
Amir Haider Malik, Department of Hydrogeology, Germany
Abstract: The urban Lei river consists of a catchment area of about 211 km2. About 55% lies in Islamabad (population about 3 million) and the rest in Rawalpindi (population about 3 million). The city of Islamabad is growing without considering its hydrogeological set-up, which is creating further flood problems in Rawalpindi. Even after the drought of 1994, groundwater is being privately exploited without any central legal control. Measures for increasing the amount of available groundwater would improve drinking water both qualitatively and quantitatively, reduce loss through uncontrolled runoff, reduce aquifer depletion and lead also to improved monitoring. The chessboard regional city planning of Islamabad, as laid down in the Master Plan (1960), has to be replanned inter-disciplinary according to topographical, geological, meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological investigations. Sustainable ecological solutions ought not be sacrificed to political short-sighted expedience.
FOREIGN AID AND INSTITUTIONAL PLURALITY: THE DOMESTIC WATER SECTOR IN NEPAL (pp. 119-130)
Sudhindra Sharma, Visiting Research Fellow, Institute of Development Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland
Abstract: This paper discusses the role of foreign aid in the evolution of the domestic water sector in Nepal. Through the case study of the domestic water sector, the paper examines how the prioritization of sectors for investment as well as implementation modalities within sectors in Nepal is influenced by development discourses in the international arena. The creation of the Department of Drinking Water and Sewerage during the early 1970s, its rapid expansion during the 1980s and contestation regarding its role in the domestic water sector in the 1990s are traced to the dominant discourses of the times.
CHALLENGES TO URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT IN SRI LANKA (pp. 131-141)
L.W. Seneviratne, Directorate of Irrigation, Mallika Gunetileke, Chief Accountant, NWSDB, Panadura, Sri Lanka
Abstract: Sri Lanka has an urban population of 22% of the national population living in 1% of its land area in 1985. Coastal lands in the wet zone are thickly populated and demand for water supply is increasing for pipe-borne safe drinking water. Surface drainage and shallow groundwater are purified and distributed for domestic connections and public standposts. Municipal Councils, the National Water Supply & Drainage Board and the Irrigation Department control water resources for the benefit of the residents. Annual new domestic connections are around 100 000 under new projects and the plan is for 100% completion by 2005. The institutional and funding issues are discussed in this paper.
COMPLEMENTARY WATER SYSTEMS IN DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA: THE CASE OF WATER VENDING (pp. 143-154)
Marianne Kjellén, Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, Sweden
Abstract: In many cities in developing countries, a piped water supply is the norm for richer households, while poorer households struggle with a number of alternative means for accessing water. In Dar es Salaam, as the public water supply is highly deficient, households of all income classes draw upon a variety of water sources. Distribution by container using pushcarts is common in large areas, in particular where piped water is rationed, low pressure or non-existent. Tankers complement the public supply in wealthier areas. This paper focuses on how public and private systems complement one another with regards to pushcart water distribution.
INTEGRATED APPROACHES TO EFFCIENT WATER USE IN SOUTH AFRICA (pp. 155-164)
Dhesigen Naidoo and George Constantinides, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa
Abstract: Post-apartheid South Africa is in the throes of incredible challenges. One of the more important challenges is the access of all citizens to basic services. South Africa is doing this against a backdrop of strongly differential servicing that is its apartheid legacy, which has prompted many a commentator to label South Africa as a country living in two worlds—a developed First World component and an impoverished developing world component. The challenge for water is to ensure universal access in this context over the added hurdle that South Africa is a water-scarce country. One of the important ways in which more water can be made available for this extended servicing is through the development and implementation of water-efficient practices in both reticulation and end use. This paper talks to the development of a national policy that is supported by the new national water law in order to achieve these goals. An urban case study on the implementation of these practices is also described.
Workshop on Water-based Development Projects: Global Experiences Sanliurfa, Turkey, 8–11 November, 1999