TOWARD IMPROVED WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE (pp. 5-24)
Susanne M. Scheierling, Pacific Operations Division (OPO), Asian Development Bank, Philippines
Abstract: Water quality management has become a core environmental issue in the transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). This article outlines the state of water quality in the pre-transition period and analyses the impacts of the transition process on water quality. It also assesses the current reform efforts in water quality management and identifies issues which need to be addressed in the short and longer term for sustaining or extending water quality improvements. The focus is on five CEE countries: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Other countries in the region, which may have followed a different transition path, are likely to face similar challenges in water quality management in the near future.
LEGITIMIZING INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT: THE TAMIL NADU WATER RESOURCES CONSOLIDATION PROJECT IN INDIA (pp. 25-39)
David Wood, Centre for Sustainable Development, School of Geography, University of Leeds, UK
Abstract: Robust legislative and policy frameworks are key elements in facilitating integrated water management. In Tamil Nadu, India, a major Water Resources Consolidation Project (WRCP) has been initiated to enhance integrated water management. While the WRCP recommended substantive legislative and policy changes, the proposals fall short of what is required to provide an effective foundation for sustainable, integrated water management. This situation is exacerbated by a lack of political will by the Government of Tamil Nadu to ratify key legislative and policy recommendations. In this paper, these issues are highlighted and suggestions for further legislative and policy improvements are presented.
THE PRICING OF DOMESTIC WATER SERVICES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CONTINGENT VALUATION APPLICATION TO KENYA (pp. 41-54)
Wilson S.K. Wasikea and Nick Hanleyb
aEconomics Department, Moi University, Kenya; bInstitute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, Scotland
Abstract: Virtually all countries, regardless of the degree of scarcity of water, subsidize water for household use (and other uses, including irrigation and industry) and, in many cases, supply it free of charge. This paper reviews two considerations of efficient pricing (i.e. methods of improving cost recovery) of water services in developing countries. A cont ingent valuation study of the value of piped water connections, under varying initial charge payment profiles, to Webuye residents in Kenya is then reported. The empirical results show the importance of pricing influences, particularly initial connection charge profiles, on household decisions to connect to piped water systems.
STRUCTURE OF THE GROUNDWATER MARKET IN BANGLADESH: A CASE STUDY OF TUBEWELL IRRIGATION INVESTMENT (pp. 55-65)
Akteruzzaman, T. Kondo, F. Osanami and T. Doi, Department of Agricultural Economics, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan
Abstract: As a result of the changes in irrigation policy since 1983, the amount of groundwater irrigation in Bangladesh has increased. The cheaper shallow tubewells (STWs) have entered the groundwater market and the hitherto monopolistic deep tubewells (DTWs) have responded to the competition in the groundwater market. An empirical model is developed to help clarify the market structure for groundwater irrigation and economic viability of tubewell operation. Empirical evidence shows that improvement in the groundwater market appears to be due to an increase in demand for irrigation for potatoes and vegetables as well as supplementary irrigation for the monsoon paddy. Apparently STWs have higher capacity use and profitability owing to their easier management and greater cost-effectiveness compared with DTWs, which may encourage more investment in STWs in the groundwater market, while the subsid withdrawal from DTWs and abolition of installation restrictions of tubewells will discourage the owning and operating of a DTW.
SUSTAINING IRRIGATION SYSTEMS IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES: EVIDENCE FROM A FIELD STUDY IN THE HILLS OF NEPAL (pp. 67-76)
Rabi K. Maskeya and Karl E. Weberb
aIrrigation Officer, Institute of Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture, Australia; bAsian Institute of Technology, Thailand
Abstract: The Nepalese government finds it increasingly difficult to sustain its irrigation systems, primarily because of the absence of or negligible cost recovery from the systems. In this paper, farmers’ ability to pay for irrigation services is examined based on information from a field study. Both a comparative analysis and the marginal value product (MVP) approach reveal that farmers under both government-and self-run irrigation systems are in a position to pay the operation and maintenance (O&M) cost. However, charging capital as well as O&M costs is found to be difficult to justify.
AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF SMALLHOLDER IRRIGATION SYSTEMS IN ZIMBABWE (pp. 77-90)
Godswill Makombe and R.K. Sampath, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Colorado State University, USA
Abstract: This paper analyses the economic performance of three smallholder irrigation management systems in Zimbabwe; namely the two formal systems, Agritex (government) managed and community (farmer) managed, and the informal bani (dambo, vlei, wetland) management system. The dry land system is compared with the irrigated systems. Production function analysis is used to evaluate production efficiency, the Theil information theoretic measure is used to evaluate inequity in the distribution of benefits from irrigation and the Th eil forecast error method is used to evaluate management performance. The results show that the farmer-managedcommunity system consistently outperforms the government system in production, distribution and management performance. The results also show that the bani system has potential to contribute positively to future irrigation development. The paper analyses the policy implications of these results and outlines the potential impacts of the policy choices on the welfare of smallholder farmers.
GROUNDWATER UTILIZATION IN KUWAIT: SOME PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS (pp. 91-105)
M. Al-Rasheda, M.N. Al-Senafya, M.N. Viswanathana and A. Al-Sumaitb
aWater Resources Division, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait; bGroundwater Projects Division; Ministry of Electricity and Water, Kuwait
Abstract: Brackish groundwater is one of the major natural water resources presently available in Kuwait. In spite of its poor quality, with total dissolved solids (TDS) of about 3000 ppm, it is increasingly used for landscaping, gardening and agriculture. Extensive use of poor quality groundwater has resulted in several problems. These are: (1) declining groundwater levels by as much as 50 m; (2) deterioration of groundwater quality in agriculture areas due to the return of irrigated water-the TDS of groundwater increased to about 8000 ppm at selected sites; and (3) excessive use of groundwater for landscaping and gardening in urban areas has resulted in the rise of groundwater levels by about 3 m, threatening the integrity of several buildings and roads. The most feasible solutions to these problems are (1) replacing the use of groundwater with artificially recharged and stored treated wastewater in aquifers; (2) reverse osmosis treated groundwater for urban and irrigation use at an appropriateprice; and (3) eliminating the over-use of brackish groundwater for irrigation by a better understanding of soil salinity build-up in the root zones.
PERFORMANCE OF ISRAEL’S WATER SYSTEM UNDER A NEW MASTER PLAN: POST-AUDIT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE (pp. 107-119)
Paul A. Kaya and Bruce Mitchellb
aDepartment of Environment and Resource Studies; bDepartment of Geography, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
Abstract: Drought in the mid-1980s exacerbated the effects of long-term overdrafts of groundwater in Israel, resulting in a supply crisis. The new master plan announced in 1988 shifted the goal of water management from increasing supply to improving supply reliability and quality. This paper applies performance evaluation measures in the manner of a post-audit, to discern whether the new plan was having the desired outcome of improving reliability. The paper concludes with thoug hts about probable, desirable and feasible futures for management policies in light of the analysis.