IMPROVING IRRIGATION SYSTEM PERFORMANCE IN EGYPT: FIRST EXPERIENCES WITH THE WUA APPROACH (pp. 261-276)
Martin Hvidt, Odense University, Center for Contemporary Middle East Studies, Denmark
Abstract: This paper analyses the extent to which Water Users Associations (WUAs) contribute to increased levels of farmer water control. Drawing extensively on field data collected in command areas rehabilitated by the Egyptian Irrigation Improvement Project (IIP), the author documents key features of the WUA formation process and changes in farmer water control resulting from the main and micro-system improvements. WUA organizational strength is found to play a decisive role in securing farmer water control in situations when main system water supply is unstable. It is argued that the impact of WUA organizational strength on water control is likely to increase further when the farming system has developed a highly diversified and moisture sensitive cropping pattern.
THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE NILE BASIN ON WATER RESOURCES IN EGYPT (pp. 277-296)
Declan Conway and Mike Hulme, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, UK
Abstract: This paper describes the application of hydrologic models of the Blue Nile and Lake Victoria sub-basins to assess the magnitude of potential impacts of climate change on Main Nile discharge. The models are calibrated to simulate historical observed runoff and then driven with the temperature and precipitation changes from three general circulation model (GCM) climate scenarios. The differences in the resulting magnitude and direction of changes in runoff highlight the inter-model differences in future climate change scenarios. A ‘wet’ case, ‘dry’ case and composite case produced + 15 ( + 12), – 9 ( 2 9) and + 1 ( + 7) per cent changes in mean annual Blue Nile (Lake Victoria) runoff for 2025, respectively. These figures are used to estimate changes in the availability of Nile water in Egypt by making assumptions about the runoff response in the other Nile sub-basins and the continued use of the Nile Waters Agreement. Comparison of these availability scenarios with demand projections for Egypt show a slight surplus of water in 2025 with and without climate change. If, however, water demand for desert reclamation is taken into account then water deficits occur for the present-day situation and also 2025 with (‘dry’ case GCM only) and without climate change. A revision of Egypt’s allocation of Nile water based on the recent low-fl ow decade-mean flows of the Nile (1981-90) shows that during this period Egypt’s water use actually exceeded availability. The magnitude of ‘natural’ fluctuations in discharge therefore has very important consequences for water resource management regardless of future climate change.
THE POLITICS OF WATER IN HAWAII: AN INSTITUTIONAL APPRAISAL (pp. 297-310)
Chennat Gopalakrishnana, Parashar B. Mallab and Gholam H. Khaleghic
a,bDepartment of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii; cFormerly with Department of Economics, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hawaii
Abstract:The politics of water in Hawaii has its roots in a pattern of land ownership that is unique to the state: oligopoly. Approximately 25% of the land in Hawaii is owned by fewer than 10 large corporations. These big landowners have a vested interest in the control of Hawaii’s waters, since they own most of the state’s sugar and pineapple plantations, which use about 24% of the fresh water consumed in the state. Our study shows a clear link between Hawaii’s oligopolistic landowners and the state’s political machinery responsible for deciding crucial issues of water ownership, control and appropriation. This ‘alliance of convenience’ has resulted in a number of disquieting consequences. This paper examines and appraises these and their impact on Hawaii’s water development and suggests future directions.
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PERFORMANCE AND CONFLICTS IN FLOOD-CONTROL PROJECTS IN BANGLADESH (pp. 311-328)
Paul M. Thompson and Parvin Sultana, Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University, Queensway, UK
Abstract: Many embankments failed in severe floods in Bangladesh in 1987 and 1988, and concern grew over ways to improve flood-control projects. Maintenance was poor due to reliance on periodic rehabilitation, but few failures were due to poor construction or maintenance. Embankments mostly failed where they were eroded or were deliberately cut. They were cut by people living outside who believed they were made more flood-prone, and by people living inside because of internal drainage congestion. This reflected inadequate hydrological modelling, lack of consultation and failure to resolve conflicts between affected groups. Resources for maintenance are not generated locally and could be used more efficiently. Participatory planning could reduce conflicts, encourage a sense of project ownership and facilitate contributions to maintenance.
RANKING IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES BY MULTICRITERION ANALYSIS (pp. 329-345)
C.R.S. Pillai and K. Srinivasa Raju, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, India
Abstract: Selection of the best alternative plan in irrigation development strategies is examined in the multiobjective context. Three conflicting objectives-net benefits, agricultural production and labour employment-are considered. The procedure combines multiobjective optimization, cluster analysis, and multicriterion decision making (MCDM) methods. Five MCDM methods, ELECTRE-2, PROMETHEE-2, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Compromise Programming (CP) and Multicriterion Q- Analysis (MCQA-2) are used in the evaluation. Spearman rank correlation test is employed to assess the correlation between them. The methodology resulted in the selection of the best alternative plan when applied to a case study of the Sri Ram Sagar Project, Andhra Pradesh, India.
HISTORICAL WATER SCHEMES IN TURKEY (pp. 347-383)
Ünal Özis, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir, Turkey
Abstract: Turkey has been at the crossroads of many civilizations, which have, during the last 4000 years, left remarkable remains of waterworks, and new discoveries add to their richness. These pipes, canals, tunnels, inverted siphons, aqueducts, reservoirs, cisterns and dams convey a fine sense of the hydraulic technology of their times.
Water Resources Development in Ethiopia. An Evaluation of Present Experience and Future Planning Concepts, Zewdie Abate, Reading, Ithaca Press, 1994