March 1, 1996
OPTIMAL SIZING OF FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION MEASURES BASED ON ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY (pp. 5-16)
Ralph A. Wurbs, Civil Engineering Department, Texas A & M University, College Station, USA
Abstract: A computer-based planning methodology for optimally sizing flood damage reduction systems is presented. The decision variables are the size of each structural component of the system, such as storage capacity for reservoirs and flow capacity for channel improvements, and the choice of which non-structural plan to implement in various regions of the floodplain. The decision criterion is to minimize total system cost, which is the sum of the discounted annual cost of implementing and maintaining each measure and the residual expected annual flood damages. A hydrologic and economic simulation model is combined with a search algorithm. The simulation model incorporates procedures for determining the total economic cost for a specified plan. The optimization algorithm iteratively executes the simulation model in an automated search for the optimum plan.
REALLOCATING WATER RESOURCES IN THE MIDDLE EAST THROUGH MARKET MECHANISMS (pp. 17-32)
Nir Becker, Naomi Zeitouni and Mordechai Shechter, Natural Resources and Environmental Research Center and Department of Economics, University of Haifa, Israel
Abstract: The growing demand for water by countries in the eastern Mediterranean raises the need to explore ways and means to ameliorate water scarcity. Economists have for some time proposed methods of more efficient exploitation of existing water supplies. Specifically, by employing market incentive mechanisms to encourage voluntary water sharing among countries and regions is likely to lead to greater efficiency in water utilization. This paper explores the efficiency gains associated with re-allocating fresh water resources in the eastern Mediterranean through water rights markets. The results suggest that all parties involved might benefit to a greater or lesser degree from trading in water rights.
CHILEAN WATER POLICY: THE ROLE OF WATER RIGHTS, INSTITUTIONS AND MARKETS (pp. 33-48)
Renato Gazmuri Schleyera and Mark W. Rosegrantb
aAsesorías y Servicios Cetra Lida, Santiago, Chile; bInternational Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, USA
Abstract: Allocation of water through markets in tradable water rights in Chile has fostered efficient use of water; facilitated a shift to high-value crops which use less water per unit value of output; has given farmers greater flexibility to shift cropping patterns according to market demand through the purchase, rent and lease of water; and induced improved efficiency in urban water and sewage services. In addition, the Chilean water policy, by reducing huge construction and operations and maintenance subsidies to better-off farmers and urban water consumers, has freed-up public resources that have been utilized to provide direct and transparent targeted subsidies for poor urban water users and small farmers. This paper discusses the political and economic environment that facilitated the establishment of the new water policy, and describes the characteristics of tradable water rights in Chile and the legal and institutional basis for enforcing them.
DEFORESTATION AND DECLINING IRRIGATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: A PHILIPPINE CASE (pp. 49-63)
Peter B. Urich, Department of Geography, University of Waikato, Te Whare Wananga O Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
Abstract: Situations have been identified where previously sustainable irrigation systems in long settled environments of South and Southeast Asia are contracting in irrigated area. This paper critically examines the theories addressing this situation. An alternative approach is used based on the impact of intensified upland land use on irrigated ‘downstream’ lands. All theories are empirically tested in a Philippine situation. Two interrelated factors are responsible: uncontrolled deforestation of upland areas and resultant destabilization of the hydrological regime, and indigenous irrigation systems that fail to distribute water adequately under altered hydrological conditions.
SOUTH AFRICA’S WATER RESOURCES AND THE LESOTHO HIGHLANDS WATER SCHEME: A PARTIAL SOLUTION TO THE COUNTRY’S WATER PROBLEMS (pp. 65-77)
G. Du T. de Villiers, P.M.U. Schmitz and H.J. Booysen, Department of Geography, University of Orange Free State, South Africa
Abstract: South Africa’s water resources and the distribution of these resources are discussed. Demand is then analysed with specific reference to certain sectors of the South African economy. Proper management of the relatively small supply is emphasized. The Lesotho Highlands Water Scheme is then discussed as a partial solution to the country’s water problems.
PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO KENYA’S WATER LEGISLATION: SOME MISSING SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES (pp. 79-88)
Kenneth K. Orie, Division of Environmental Law, School of Environmental Studies, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Abstract: Kenya’s water law is a legacy of colonialism. It falls short of coping with today’s water resources management problems. There is currently a proposed amend- ment to Kenya’s Water Act. This article examines that amendment in the light of sustainable water resources management principles and finds it short of incorporating some of these principles. It gives reasons for this omission and suggests ways of improving the Bill. The article’s views differs from those of the Attorney General of Kenya regarding the proposed amendment.
BALANCE OF AVERAGE ANNUAL FRESH WATER INFLOW INTO THE ADRIATIC SEA (pp. 89-97)
B. Sekulic and A. Vertacnik, Centre for Marine Research, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Croatia
Abstract: The Adriatic Sea integral drainage area (about 250 000 km2) and the integral annual in flow of fresh water, as well as that from surrounding countries-Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania-and Italy have been determined, respectively. The inflow is also reported separately for rivers, groundwater, submarine springs and runoff. Average integral fresh water inflow is about 5500 m3/s, while the inflow from rivers amounts to nearly 3900 m3/s. The Adriatic Sea is a great source of clean fresh water for the Mediterranean Sea, transportation taking place during sea-current cyclic movement. The littoral waters are enriched with oxygen, and the environmental quality is improved.