WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: A NEW POLICY FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (pp. 221-232)
Ismail Serageldin, Vice-President for Environmentally Sustainable Development, The World Bank, NW, Washington, USA
Abstract: To manage water more effectively, a new approach is necessary, incorporating a balanced set of policies and institutional reforms. Its core is the adoption of a comprehensive framework for water management that recognizes the interactions among the elements of a river basin’s ecosystem and incorporates cross-sectional and environmental considerations in the design of investments and policies. The new approach also calls for water to be treated as an economic good, for decentralized management and delivery structures, greater reliance on pricing, and fuller participation by stakeholders.
CONSERVATION EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION WATER SUPPLY PRICING: A CASE STUDY FROM OAHU, HAWAII (pp. 233-242)
Parashar B. Mallaa and Chennat Gopalakrishnanb
aGraduate Assistant; bProfessor, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii
Abstract: The conservation effects of irrigation water supply pricing are examined by employing data on irrigation water use from the honolulu board of water supply (BWS) and the waimanalo irrigation system for the period of 1982/83-1991/92. A water consumption model was used for this purpose. The OLS procedure indicated the existence of ar(1) autocorrelation in residuals. To make allowance for this, the orcutt-cochrane procedure was employed to estimate the regression equations. No evidence of water pricing promoting water conservation was found in either case. Rainfall turned out to be the single-most important variable in explaining the changes in agricultural use in the study areas.
THE BENEFITS OF ALLEVIATING LOW FLOWS IN RIVERS (pp. 243-260)
K.G. Willis and G.D. Garrod, Department of Town and Country Planning, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Abstract: A number of rivers in England and Wales experience low flows, especially during summer months, due to over-abstraction of water. This paper outlines the use of contingent valuation methods in an ex ante appraisal of the costs and benefits of low-flow alleviation, using the River Darent in Kent as a case study. Both use and passive use values are estimated. The sequential benefits of enhanced flows are estimated from those associated with abstraction up to licensed limits, to river flow at 70% cent of licensed abstraction levels, to flow levels required for an environmentally acceptable flow regime. These benefits are compared with the costs which would be incurred to achieve these enhanced flow regimes.
IRRIGATION SYSTEM SALINITY MANAGEMENT MODELLING (pp. 261-272)
Muhammad Aslama and Gaylord V. Skogerboeb
aDepartment of Irrigation and Drainage, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan; bDepartment of Biological and Irrigation Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, USA
Abstract: A salinity management model is developed for analysing an irrigation system (small or large), which consists of a hydro-salinity submodel, a soil moisture chemistry submodel, and a groundwater salinity submodel. The hydro-salinity submodel calculates water and salt budgets for an irrigation system in order to determine the recharge rate into the groundwater reservoir. The soil moisture chemistry submodel predicts soil moisture movement and transport of solutes in the unsaturated soil profile considering the cation exchange, precipitation and dissolution of gypsum and lime in the soil solution. The three-dimensional groundwater salinity submodel predicts the spatial and temporal changes in groundwater salinity, as well as temporal variations in the salinity of pumped water.
RESERVOIR SYSTEM RELIABILITY CONSTRAINED BY SALINITY (pp. 273-288)
Ralph A. Wurbsa, Ishtiaque Salehb and Awes S. Karamac
a,bCivil Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA; cSt John Water Management District, Palatka, USA
Abstract: A generalized reservoir/river system simulation model, which incorporates salinity considerations, was developed and applied in an evaluation of the water supply capabilities of a reservoir system in the Brazos River Basin. Water resources management and utilization in this river basin is severely constrained by natural salt pollution. The paper outlines a general approach for developing the required input data and applying the simulation model in evaluating water supply reliabilities subject to specified maximum allowable salt concentrations. Key issues are identified and discussed from the perspective of the illustrative case study. The modelling and analysis methodology is pertinent to other river basins as well.
CONSTRUCTION OF STORAGE-PERFORMANCE-YIELD RELATIONSHIPS FOR A RESERVOIR USING STOCHASTIC SIMULATION (pp. 289-302)
M.C. Philiposea and K. Srinivasanb
aResearch Scholar; bAssistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, India
Abstract: In the past, many researchers have used stochastic streamflow models along with sequent peak algorithm or simulation to obtain storage-reliability-yield (S-R-Y) relationships for a reservoir. These S-R-Y relationships consider only the probability of failure, but not the likely consequences of the failure (vulnerability). In this paper, separate contours of reservoir performance, namely reliability and vulnerability (eventbased), have been developed on the storage±yield plane, using stochastic reservoir simulation. These contours of performance, when superposed, give rise to the storage-performance-yield (S-P-Y) relationships, the construction of which is illustrated in this paper through a case example. These relationships provide more comprehensive information to the reservoir planner regarding performance than the S-R-Y relationships.
OPPORTUNITY, DELAY AND POLICY PLANNING VISION IN THE SYNERGIC DEVELOPMENT OF EASTERN HIMALAYAN RIVERS: A CONSPECTUS (pp. 303-314)
I.N. Sinha, Patna, India
Abstract: In spite of the rich endowment of resources in the Ganga Brahmaputra-Meghna basin, it is one of the poorest in the world. One of the major reasons for this paradox is the isolated and fragmented development of its water resources. Attempts at purposive bilateral negotiations on this precious renewable resource between the co-riparians became enmeshed in a political web and viewed with mistrust. The obsession of big-small nation syndrome or apprehension at being outvoted in multilateral interactions has eluded any synergic effort. The paper deals with the development of events, causes of the imbroglio and outlines a pragmatic approach to solve the morbid impasse.
AN ANALYSIS OF FUTURE WATER POLICIES IN JORDAN USING DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (pp. 315-330)
Odeh Rashed Al-Jayyousia and Muhammad Rashid Shatanawib
aCivil Engineering Department, Applied Science University, Amman, Jordan; bWater and Environment Research and Study Center, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Abstract: Despite looming water shortages in Jordan, the country lacks a coherent water policy and has no recognized institutional mechanism to create one. During the last 30 years, this critical problem has largely been addressed by physical infrastructure development in the public sector and groundwater exploitation in the private. These efforts are not meeting the increasing demands of all competing sectors. This paper analyses possible future water policies in Jordan using decision support systems. An analytical hierarchy process is used to break policies into component parts, then synthesize and analyse them in the context of constraints and scenarios in Jordan for the year 2010. The paper argues that Jordan must give priority to the efficient management of water resources at the regional level. This includes institutional restructuring, new water pricing strategies, importation of water, and water desalination
Groundwater Markets and Irrigation Development: Political Economy and Practical Policy, by Tushaar Shah, Bombay, Oxford University Press, 1993
Hydropolitics Along the Jordan River: Scarce Water and its Impact on the Arab-Israeli Conflict, by Aaron T. Wolf Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 1995
International Conference on Land and Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean Region, Mai-Bari, Italy, 4-8 September 1994
Asian Water Forum on International Waters, Bangkok, Thailand, 30 January-1 February 1995
International Workshop on National Water Master Plans, Mexico City, 27-29 March 1995