Middle East Water Commission
THE MYTH OF WATER WARS AND THE FUTURE OF IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE IN THE MIDDLE EAST (pp. 9-21)
Peter Beaumont, Professor and Head, Department of Geography, University of Wales, Lampeter, Wales, UK
Abstract: Recent papers have claimed that in the Middle East the pressure on available water resources might result in hostilities between certain states. This paper argues that such wars are unlikely given that most water in the region is being used, mostly inefficiently, for irrigation purposes. It is claimed that the water problems of most countries could be solved by diverting a relatively small amount of water from irrigation to higher value urban/industrial uses. Food production would suffer somewhat but the richer countries could make good these losses by purchases on the world market. Inevitably, irrigated agriculture in the Middle East must contract as growing populations demand more water for their needs.
REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL COUNTRIES (pp. 23-37)
Mohamed J. Abdulrazzak, Associate Professor, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources Management, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Abstract: The water resources of the Gulf Cooperating Council (GCC) countries are considered to be of equal importance to their oil resources. This paper takes a brief look at the current situation concerning the water-related problems encountered by the GCC countries, the availability and use of water in these countries and then presents estimates of future requirements. In conclusion, a number of suggestions are proposed for the GCC countries which will affect water management actions that attempt to balance water availability and demand. These actions range from improving institutional arrangements, training and data management to the development of a cooperative long-term water management plan.
MODELLING OF THE SHEGAYA, SULAIBIYA AND UMM GUDAIR FIELDS IN KUWAIT (pp. 39-54)
Muhammad F. Al-Rashed, Water Resources Division, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait
Abstract: Numerical modelling of the two main aquifers in Kuwait—the Kuwait Group and Dammam Limestone aquifers—was carried out. Two different well designs were represented in the model: wells completed in the Dammam Limestone aquifer and dual completion wells in both aquifers. The results of the modelling suggested that (i) most of the decline in potentiometric heads will take place in the central and northern part of the study area, (ii) the direction of vertical leakage, which was upward initially, will change to a downward direction (from the Kuwait Group to Dammam Limestone) and (Hi) the flow direction may change in the eastern part of the study area from north to north-east.
THE INDEPENDENT REVIEW OF THE SARDAR SAROVAR PROJECTS 1991-92 (pp. 55-66)
Thomas R. Berger, Deputy Chairman, 1991-92, of the Independent Review of the Sardar Sarovar Projects established by the World Bank, Vancouver, Canada
Abstract: The World Bank established its first independent review of any of its projects in 1991. This independent review was set up to examine the Sardar Sarovar Projects in India. According to India, this would be the world’s largest water development project. The paper summarizes the methodology and the findings of the Independent Review.
SHORT-TERM RAINFALL FORECASTING USING RADAR DATA (pp. 67-77)
E. Baltas and M. Mimikou, Department of Water Resources, Hydraulic and Maritime Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Greece
Abstract: This paper describes the application of two methods for short-term rainfall forecasting using radar data. The first method is based on the linear extrapolation of the centroids of features of rainfall cells, whereas the second method utilizes cross-correlation techniques applied to the radar rainfall fields. Storm events from a region suffering from frequent and hazardous flash floods within the 120 km umbrella of the WSR-74 S-band radar located at the Larissa military airport in central Greece were analysed and processed. After the suppression of the ground clutter map, the subtraction of the errors due to anomalous propagation, beam refraction and losses, and the merging of radar and raingauge rainfall data, a multiple-step-ahead forecast was carried out by setting lead times 40, 80, 120 and 160 minutes ahead. It was found that both methods gave results of acceptable accuracy for the 40 and 80-minute rainfall forecasting, while for the 120-and 160-minute forecasting the results were of relatively poor accuracy. Forecasting results were evaluated by means of a series of statistical terms and it was found that cross-correlation techniques perform better than the extrapolation of the centroids of features. This can possibly be explained by the fact that the former method takes into account the whole radar rainfall image and therefore decreases the chances of mismatching features of rainfall cells.
TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL EFFLUENTS: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL (pp. 79-89)
Narayan Chandra Ghosha and B. Boseb
aScientist, National Institute of Hydrology, India; bProfessor, School of Water Resources Engineering, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India
Abstract: Available treatment techniques for wastewater, municipal and industrial, are expensive either in terms of cost or in terms of energy or land requirement. Problems in running the system and the recurring expenditure involved in maintenance of the system are other aspects not appreciated when considering the available techniques. This leads to calls for an alternative technique which is compatible with the problems of a developing economy. It is attempted here to develop an integrated conceptual model which is less expensive, consumes relatively low energy, is easy to operate and maintain and would be acceptable to the community. End-uses of the treated effluents are a beneficial aspect and can generate revenue to meet a reasonable part of the running expenses. The model could also be coupled with scientific land-use planning which is very much needed in developing countries.
Alaska Water Exports: A Discussion Paper, by Ric Davidge, Department of Natural Resources, State of Alaska, Alaska, USA
Solar Pumping: An Introduction and Update on the Technology, Performance, Costs and Economics, by Roy Barlow, Bernard McNelis and Anthony Derrick, World Bank, Washington, DC
Third Stockholm Water Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, 10-14 August 1993
International Workshop and Training Course on Sustainable Irrigation Management: Policy Issues and Operational Implications, Bangkok, Thailand, 12-16 November 1993