M&O GUIDELINES FOR TURNOVER OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS TO FARMERS (pp. 369-386)
Gaylord V. Skogerboea, Lokendra P. Poudyalb and Khadga B. Shresthac
aInternational Irrigation Center, Department of Biological and Irrigation Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, USA; b,cKaybee’s Group, Kathmandu, Nepal
Abstract: A process has been developed for converting an irrigation project presently being operated by the government (agency-managed irrigation system) to a farmermanaged irrigation system. This joint management turnover process has three phases: (1) initial organization; (2) joint management agreement; and (3) joint management implementation. Maintenance and operation (M&O) guidelines are provided for achieving turnover of system management to farmers.
LA GRANDE RIVIÉRE: ‘IN ACCORD WITH ITS ENVIRONMENT’, A CASE STUDY (pp. 387-409)
Gaétan Guertin, Claude Demers and Martin Pérusse, Hydro-Québec, Montreal, Canada
Abstract: The La Grande Riviére hydroelectric complex in the James Bay region has now been operational for more than 15 years. Numerous environmental monitoring programmes have been implemented to learn from that project. This article reviews the evolution of the newly created environments and their effects on wildlife and habitats. It also examine the modification to land use and the socio-cultural repercussions on the Cree communities.
THE DESIGN OF A REGIONAL MINIMUM RAINGAUGE NETWORK (pp. 411-424)
C.P.K. Basalirwa, L.J Ogallo and F.M Mutua, Department of Meteorology, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Abstract: This study attempts to design a minimum raingauge network for Uganda. Monthly rainfall totals from 102 stations within the period 1940-75 are used. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used first to delineate Uganda into homogeneous rainfall subdivisions. The station with the highest PCA-derived communality from each group of stations within each subdivision was then chosen to form the minimum network design. A minimum network of 14 stations was derived. Although less than 50% of the areal rainfall variance was explained in some subdivisions during some rainfall seasons, a minimum network design provides the best climatological data samples that are representative of all the unique rainfall characteristics over the region.
TOWARDS DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL SIZE OF UNIT IRRIGATION COMMAND AREA (pp. 425-438)
N.K. Tyagia, R.K. Kaushalb, Sewa Ramc and R.k. Sampathd
a,bCentral Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, India; cDepartment of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India; dDepartment of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA
Abstract: The size of a irrigation unit command area (UCA) has significant influence on distribution of water among farms and the efficiency of irrigation within farms. A model incorporating the concepts of equity, efficiency and productivity is developed for designing optimal UCA size and is validated with data from Bhakra Canal System in India. The design of watercourses by adopting the suggested procedure would lead to improvement in three-criterion parameters (equity, efficiency and productivity). This establishes the need for and scope of modifying the existing designs.
APPLICATION OF A SINGLE-EVENT HYDROLOGICAL MODEL TO THE ARID WATERSHED OF WADI EL-MAGHAYER, JORDAN (pp. 439-452)
Walid Saleha, Semaan Sarrafb and Awni taimehc
a,bCivil Engineering Department, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada; cFaculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Abstract: Arid and semi-arid lands suffer from scarce water conditions. Rainfall occurs over brief intervals producing short intensive floods. Due to the complete absence of gauge stations in the local wadis reliable watershed analysis is necessary in irrigation planning and project design in this environment. This paper presents a wadi network analysis for El-Maghayer dry watershed near Amman, Jordan. The analysis of this watershed is based on hydrologic routeing techniques relative to arid or semi-arid land and, taking into account major loss rate components of land depression, evaporation and base flow, runoff hydrographs are routed by the wadi storage method.
ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY OF HANOI (pp. 453-464)
Peder Hjorth and Nguyen Thi Dan, Division of Water Resources Engineering, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
Abstract: This paper deals with the major problems related to water management in the urban areas of developing countries. Increasing human activities within the urban areas create water pollution which causes degradation of water quality in rivers and aquifers. Poor urban infrastructure obstructs economic growth and development. Inadequate access to water and sanitation causes degradation of the environment and human health in urban areas. Some of these problems and the major management issues for Hanoi are discussed in this paper. A general planning framework for the water sector to meet the environmental challenges of the next decade for sustainable economic growth and development of the city is outlined.
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