Special Issue: Infomation System for Water Management
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH REGIONAL INFORMATION NETWORK (CEHANET) (pp. 156-165)
Abstract: The development of the Environmental Health Regional Information Network (CEHANET) is presented showing its aims, objectives, subject and geographic coverage and services. The role of the Network in serving water resources professionals is shown through the services provided and the coverage of its literature in the databases. Achievements of CEHANET include: development of systems and tools, training of information professionals and provision of information and document delivery services. The impact of CEHANET services and problems of information exchange in the region are discussed. The article includes a list of water resources information services in the UN systems, at national level and commercial vendors.
RAISON: INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR MANAGING WATER RESOURCES MODELS AND DATA (pp. 166-172)
D. A. Swayne, E. Ongley, D.C.L. Lam and A.S. Fraser
Abstract: This article describes the authors’ approaches to developing information systems for water quality modelling and monitoring using an integrated systems approach. A collection of computer software programs have been developed and are designed to facilitate the development of water quality and quantity modelling and monitoring systems. These have been named RAISON Micro, for Regional Analysis by Intelligent Systems ON Micro-computer, and incorporate geographical information systems (GIS), spreadsheet, database, graphics editor, special-purpose data display software and expert system shell. This set of programs is suitable for IBM and IBM-compatible microcomputers and is being adapted for SUN and IRIS workstations.
RAISON: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR WATER SOURCES CLASSIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT (pp. 173-181)
Soo Loong Tong
Abstract: The µRAISON geographic information system was developed as a management tool for water quality control, water supply and sanitation protection, and water resources development planning. Basically, the package consists of a map system, a database and a spreadsheet module. The multi-level structured system will access on initiation the map display and databases at the national level. Overlays of various types of national statistical information on the national map can be effected at this level. Map-based operations then allow sequential and retrospective access to map displays, databases and data analysis at the state, district and finally at the local level, such as villages, where locations of water quality sources or stations are identified. Water sources are classified based on the microbiological quality of the water samples and the results are displayed on maps for rapid review via spreadsheet analysis and using appropriate colour codes.
A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN CAIRO (pp. 182-185)
Mona M. El Kady
Abstract: In 1975 the Ministry of Irrigation of Egypt (now Ministry of Public Works and Water Resources) consolidated its research organizations into one organization and called this the Water Research Center (WRC). The Ministry, through the WRC, has requested that a host of detailed information be generated through the 11 research institutes of the WRC. These institutes are concerned with water distribution, channel maintenance, weed control, drainage, groundwater, water resources development, side-effects of the High Dam, sedimentation, hydraulic models, surveys, coastal protection and soil mechanics. There was no clearly visible technology available to store, analyse, and use efficiently the combined data from the WRC’s 11 research institutes. Today, as the mass of information continues to grow, it becomes more and more apparent that an efficient means must be found to apply the data properly to analyse water resources problems and find solutions to them. This, of course, describes the use of a Geographic Information System.
A KNOWLEDGE-BASED ADVISORY SYSTEM FOR SINGLE MULTIPURPOSE RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT (pp. 186-194)
Slobodan P. Simonovic
Abstract: Within the framework of an information system for water management, data analysis represents one of the main activities. Use of mathematical models for complex analyses is quite common practice in the developed countries today. Proper transfer of modelling knowledge to developing countries is not straightforward. In this article expertise in using different techniques for a single multipurpose reservoir analysis has been reviewed and rationalized for the development of an intelligent decision support system (Simonovic and Savic, 1989). Using new computer-based technology, known as expert systems, the effort has been made to ease the knowledge transfer between the reservoir experts and less experienced users. The result of the work is contained in the computer tool named REZES, which is aimed at assisting the less experienced user in performing single multipurpose reservoir analysis. The emphasis of the article is on reservoir expertise and the process to rationalize it.
WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN THE KARNALI RIVER BASIN, NEPAL (pp. 195-203)
Dinesh L. Shrestha and Guna N. Paudyal
Abstract: Nepal is often quoted as the country in the world with rich hydropower. However, such an enormous potential is practically unexploited. This article presents the applications of advanced analytical techniques in analysing the water resources potential and planning optimal development in the Karnali River Basin, one of the three major river basins in the Kingdom of Nepal. The Chisapani project, the largest single reservoir system in the basin, has been given considerable interest by the concerned authorities in recent years. However, several relatively smaller reservoirs can be developed in the upper reaches of the basin and a number of alternative plans can be formed among these to yield benefits close to that of the Chisapani project. Moreover, these smaller reservoirs apparently have less adverse environmental and social impacts.
WASTEWATER FOR CROP PRODUCTION IN THE NEAR EAST: TOWARDS SAFE AND EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT (pp. 204-215)
Abstract: Effluent reuse in agriculture converts sewage from a nuisance to an asset for semiarid and arid countries. The natural biological sewage water treatments, including waste stabilization ponds, soil-aquifer treatment and other low-cost methods, rely on the capacity of the soil — water system to filter, buffer and rejuvenate. This article focuses on the agricultural and irrigation aspects of wastewater use in the Near East, calls for treatment at source of industrial wastes, a greater role and efforts by ministries of agriculture and irrigation, and further coordinated assistance by UN agencies.
Water Resources Management: In Search of an Environmental Ethic, by David Lewis Feldman John Hopkins, Baltimore, University Press, 1991
Putting People First: Sociological Variables in Rural Development, edited by Michael M. Cernea (second edition, revised and expanded) Oxford University Press (for the World Bank), New York & London, 1991.
Climatic Changes and us Water Resources, by Paul E. Waggoner John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1990
Water resources in the next century Report on the Stockholm Water Symposium, Stockholm, 12 —15 August 1991
Planning, monitoring, appraisal and control, African Regional Symposium on Techniques for Environmentally Sound Water Resources Development, Alexandria, Egypt, 30 Septembei—2 October 1991
Promoting cooperation on international water systems, Workshop on ‘Environmentally sound management of international water systems’, Sophia Amipolis. Frame, 28-30 April 1992
The Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development, International Conference on Water and the Environment, Dublin, 26—31 January 1992