WATER FOR THIRD WORLD DEVELOPMENT: A PERSPECTIVE FROM THE SOUTH (pp. 3-9)
Asit K. Biswas
Abstract: Historically interest in water resources development has always been higher in the South than in the North. From the perspective of the South, there can be no real direct international governance in the field of water, either in terms of quantity or quality. Even though the final decisions on water management are made by the appropriate levels of the governments in individual countries, international organizations do influence such decisions by a variety of ways and means. Two major issues — international rivers and environmental considerations — are discussed, where international governance can have major impacts on national water policies and institutions.
TRADEOFFS IN THE REGULATION OF THE EQUATORIAL LAKES (pp. 10-16)
Aris P. Georgakakos, Talal Sadaka and Thomas W. Barr
Abstract: A stochastic control method is employed to investigate several issues related to operation of the Equatorial Lake system. These lakes are essential to the livelihood of several riparian and downstream countries, and their regulation should be governed by international agreements. In an attempt to lay the basis for negotiation, this study quantifies various tradeoffs between the system objectives.
MODELLING AN OVERDEVELOPED IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN SOUTH INDIA (pp. 17-29)
B. S. Thandaveswara, K. Srinivasan, N. Amarendra Babu and S. K. Ramesh
Abstract: An optimization model for irrigation planning is developed based on the experience gained from an overdeveloped irrigation system in South India. This model helps the decision maker in choosing the appropriate policy decisions under conditions of shortage of the available water potential to meet the demand of already overgrown irrigation systems. The objective of the model is to maximize the net benefits from crops in the commands of the irrigation projects considered. The constraints of the model include total land limitations of each project, subregional land limitations; reservoir balance, storage capacity, beginning-year storage constraints for each reservoir; range of possible downstream riparian release policies; sociological constraints regarding essential food crop policy and commercial crop limitations.
DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA’S RIVER BASINS (pp. 30-44)
M. A. Chitale
Abstract: Irrigation development in India up to the 19th century was mainly through the development of tanks. Later, with advances in construction technology, diversion schemes on large riversl such as the Ganges, Krishna, Godavari and Mahanadi were taken up. Construction of large storage dams followed thereafter. The Indian rivers could be classified either on the basis of hydrological characteristics, or on the basis of availability of water per capita or per hectare, or on the basis of the size of the drainage area. Some of the river basins are so large, and cover such widely different regional characteristics, that it is convenient to break them into sub-basins for the purposes of planning and development. It is also necessary to work beyond the basins. Proposals for inter-basin transfer of water from wellplaced areas to deficit areas for ensuring the optimum use of the country’s water resources are being investigated by the National Water Development Agency set up by the Government of India in July 1982. As about 80% of rivers’ annual flow passes through them in a matter of four monsoon months only the construction of large storages on the risers is necessary to hold back the available waters for use throughout the year. For a properly integrated management of the basin’s waters and their quality, the setting up of comprehensive river basin organizations has been recommended.
COMPREHENSIVE POLICY PLANNING FOR WATER SYSTEMS: THE ADMINISTRATION OF COMPLEX POLICY NETWORKS (pp. 45-52)
Abstract: This article focuses on the Dutch experience with integrated water management. In order to promote integrated water management, a particular administrative format is employed in the Netherlands. This facilitates comprehensive policy planning in a project organization that has been set up for this specific purpose. This article treats the results of an evaluation of the application of this approach. This evaluation study generated policy recommendations that can be applied elsewhere.
AN ALTERNATIVE WATER SUPPLY FOR CHILEAN COASTAL DESERT VILLAGES (pp. 53-59)
Pilar Cereceda, Robert S. Schemenauer and Marcela Suit
Abstract: The measured domestic water consumption rates in two fishing villages on the arid north coast of Chile were 14.2 and 19.7′ l/pers/day. The villagers pay 10% of their family income for water in Chungungo and 6% in Los Hornos. The true subsidized cost of the water would represent 39% and 26% respectively of average family income. These high water costs led to the establishment of a project to determine if fog water collection could provide a lower cost water supply. The site, on the ridge above the village of Chungungo, has produced 7200 l/day, an average of 22 I/day for each of the 330 people in the village, during its first 32 months of operation, at a cost estimated to be one-quarter of that of the current water supply. In addition, the fog water supply should be more reliable and of equal or better quality.
SAVING THE ARAL SEA (pp. 60-64)
Abstract: The wrong strategy of economic development pursuing the goal of one-sided expansion of water-consuming cotton and rice monoculture has led to heavy withdrawals of river flow for irrigation. Consequently, as a result of diminishing inflow, the Aral Sea began to shrink in volume and area and is now on the verge of total collapse. The tragedy can be averted if recommendations of the recently elaborated concept for conservation and restoration of the sea are realized without any delay. This could save the sea as a productive water body and normalize the socio-economic, ecological and medical situation in the Aral region.
SOCIAL CONFLICTS AND THEIR REMEDIES IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF CANAL WATER: CASE STUDY OF THE DAMODAR VALLEY IRRIGATION PROJECT, INDIA (pp. 65-75)
S. Ghosh and Debabrata Lahiri
Abstract: Lower availability of water in canals has caused damage of control structures, breach of minors and sub-minors and erection of cross bunds to obtain water for crops. This misappropriation has resulted in inter- and intra-village conflicts in the area of the Damodar Valley Irrigation Project in West Bengal. The conflicts are mostly caste based, as is prevalent in Northern India, and subject to political involvement. In the head reach the conflicts over the distribution of water are solved by the intervention of village-level institutions with the help of community development blocks and irrigation officials. But in the tail reach the village-level institutions and government officials have played a very limited role in resolving the conflicts. This article examines the nature and causes of the conflicts and some solutions are suggested.