Water has become an issue of national security for most countries of the world, Singapore being one of them because of its dependence on imports of water from Malaysia. In order to reduce its dependence on external sources, this city–state has developed and implemented extremely efficient demand and supply management practices. In addition to imports of water and land reclamation, this strategy is a combination of rainfall storage, desalination and very sophisticated technology for recycling used water. As the paper analyses, Singapore has successfully managed to find the right balances between water quantity and water quality considerations; water supply and water demand management; public sector and private sector participation; efficiency and equity considerations; strategic national interest and economic efficiency; and strengthening internal capacities and reliance on external sources.
There is no room for squeamishness in the face of the world’s growing [...]
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Kris Hartley, Cecilia Tortajada and Asit K. Biswas, 2019, Journal of [...]