India lacks energy. In 2011, almost 300 million people —25 per cent of the country’s population— had no access to electricity. Even 65 years after independence, only nine states —Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Goa, Delhi, Haryana, Kerala, Punjab, and Tamil Nadu— out of a total of 28 have been officially declared as electrified (British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) 2012). But even in these so-called electrified states, power shortages and power cuts are often common. In July 2012, the worst energy blackout in a decade left more than 620 million Indians without electricity, and total energy demand currently outstrips supply by as much as 15 per cent.
Cecilia Tortajada, 2020, npj Clean Water, Volume 3:22.
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