WATER RESOURCES ASSESSMENT FOR EGYPT (pp. 76-86)
Abstract: Egypt is a very arid country, where only 3.4% of the area is inhabited. Water is a major constraint to the country’s development. This paper reviews surface and groundwater availability in Egypt, various types of water users and requirements and current water use policy. The role of reuse of treated wastewater and drainage water in satisfying the country’s future water demands is outlined. Water quality and environmental aspects of surface and groundwater development are also discussed.
WATER RESOURCES AND THE FUTURE OF ARID LANDS (pp. 87-97)
Abstract: During the past 40 years arid land areas, occupying more than one-third of the land surface, have received special attention in an attempt to develop and to exploit the existing natural resources including water. The lessons learned during that interval reflect the continued need to integrate national and international efforts, directed to improve methodologies of computation and conservation of surface runoff water, to support all trials to develop adequately the regional aquifer systems and eventually to enhance the role of the scientific organization involved in arid zone research.
THE PLANNING PROCESS FOR GROUNDWATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (pp. 98-102)
Abstract: Groundwater development has long been directed to satisfying the demands without taking into account the scarcity of this natural resource. As a result groundwater resources are being over-exploited in many areas, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Sustainable water resources development requires a broader scope and an integrated approach to water resources planning. Relevant elements in integrated water resources management are water conservation, the role of surface water, water quality, demand and supply management, institutional organization and the role of the beneficiaries.
TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT (pp. 103-112)
Abstract: The water balance forms the base for groundwater management. Inputs and outputs should be analysed according to their nature and quantified as accurately as possible. Over-exploitation of aquifers will inevitably lead to a decline in water levels, and often also to an increase in salinity. Overcharging may cause waterlogging, in (semi-)arid regions mostly associated with soil salinization. Groundwater models are indispensable tools to predict the changes caused by human interference. In case of scarcity of data, simple models will be as effective as more sophisticated ones. A checklist summarizes the points to be considered in planning groundwater schemes, both for the case of overpumping and for the case of overcharging. Two examples are given, both dealing with over-exploitation: salinization of a coastal aquifer (India) and groundwater mining in a continental region (USA).
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF GROUNDWATER PLANNING: IMPLEMENTATION AND FEEDBACK (pp. 118-125)
Abstract: Groundwater development plans are based on hydrogeological consequences of simulated scenarios with time-dependent elements. Control and monitoring of the implementation of the plan is essential in order to verify the assumptions on which it is based and to collect the information needed to update and improve the plan after a number of years. Effective monitoring requires a clear institutional setting which balances inputs from the central government and delegation of tasks to lower administrative levels and the water users. An effective licence system is one of the important operational tools. A system of feedback is needed to guarantee that the information is returned to the planning agency for update of the plan.
ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT PLANS IN UPPER EGYPT (pp. 135-144)
Abstract: A variety of groundwater development schemes have been implemented in Egypt. In the Nile Valley floodplain groundwater schemes are either to supplement surface water deficits or to solve drainage problems. Previous investigations have indicated that the major economic return from conjunctive use projects is from drainage. Accordingly, the groundwater development plans for the Nile Valley gave first priority to tubewell drainage. This paper discusses the economic evaluation of a groundwater scheme designed essentially for land drainage. Results indicate that tubewell drainage is economically the most feasible solution, if
pumped water is allocated for irrigation.