THE 2011–2012 DROUGHT IN THE UNITED STATES: NEW LESSONS FROM A RECORD EVENT (pp. 183-199)
Abstract: The record-setting 2011–2012 drought was the worst in the central regions of the United States since the 1930s. Short-term impacts included crop failures, job losses, water shortages, energy impacts, navigation problems and environmental losses. The event reinforced the need for water security and preparedness through collective actions for mitigation and response. It showed that innovations in water management can improve resilience but cannot mitigate all risks; comprehensive water-management and emergency-preparedness solutions are needed, based on effective collaboration between institutions. The main lesson of this complex and significant drought is about the need to strengthen intergovernmental cooperation and policy responses.
Keywords: drought; United States; central plains; impacts; water management; irrigation; agricultural losses
PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF SHARED WATERS: HYDROPOLITICS AND HYDROPSYCHOLOGY—TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN (pp. 200-210)
Abstract: Politics and human behaviour play key roles in the planning and management of shared water resources. The interactions between politics and water resources (hydropolitics) have been extensively studied, and the need to study the interactions between human behaviour and water-related activities (hydropsychology) is increasingly recognized. Although both hydropolitics and hydropsychology are useful, neither by itself is adequate across all scales of water resources and human society. This paper reasons that hydropolitics is a top-down view and hydropsychology is bottom-up, and argues for a framework to reconcile the two for a two-way and more balanced approach.
Keywords: shared water resources; planning and management; politics; human behaviour; hydropolitics; hydropsychology
DE-NATIONALIZATION AND DESECURITIZATION OF TRANSBOUNDARY WATER RESOURCES: THE ISRAELI–PALESTINIAN CASE (pp. 211-223)
aInternational Institute for Sustainable Development, Ottawa, ON, Canada; bProgamme de l’Eau, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Centre de Recherche Francais a Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
Contact: David B. Brooks, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Many people think of transboundary water in terms of national security. However, water is not, nor is it likely to become, a cause of war. Rather, the need is for water security, which implies that water management must balance the goals of efficiency, equity, sustainability and implementability. This article suggests how a joint management structure for fresh water can be designed to promote ongoing resolution of issues, and do so in a way that de-nationalizes and de-securitizes transboundary water. Though designed with the Israeli–Palestinian case in mind, the approach is applicable wherever water divides rather than unites states or peoples.
Keywords: shared water resources; planning and management; politics; human behaviour; hydropolitics; hydropsychology
STEPS TOWARDS AN AFGHANISTAN–PAKISTAN WATER-SHARING AGREEMENT (pp. 224-229)
Abstract: Negotiations between Afghanistan and Pakistan to share the international watercourses in the Kabul Basin will involve complex networks of natural, societal and political systems. The natural systems are strongly influenced by climate change; societal interests include an economy based on agriculture; and the region in both states is subject to turmoil and insecurity. Given these complexities, the recent joint announcement by the finance ministers of Afghanistan and Pakistan of plans to construct a hydropower project on the Kunar River is a significant step. However, much work remains to jointly develop and manage the waters in the Kabul Basin.
Keywords: Afghanistan; Pakistan; transboundary water; Kabul River; Kunar River
RE-EXAMINING CONFLICT AND COOPERATION IN CENTRAL ASIA: A CASE STUDY FROM THE ISFARA RIVER, FERGHANA VALLEY (pp. 230-245)
aCollege of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; bInternational Water Management Institute, Central Asia Office, Tashkent, Uzbekistán
Contact: Kai Wegerich, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: While conflict and cooperation in Central Asia are mainly focused on the larger basins (Amu and Syr Darya) and the implementation of the agreement reached directly after independence (1991), here an analysis of the history of water-sharing agreements in the Isfara Basin is presented. The paper reveals that there have been fierce negotiations and renegotiations even during the Soviet Union period between the Central Asian riparian republics; agreement was reached mainly though engineering solutions that brought more water to the basin. The paper highlights that although water-sharing agreements were reached early on, the technical capability of implementing these agreements was lacking. Similarly, even after independence, agreements had been reached but lack of water control hindered their implementation.
Keywords: small transboundary tributaries; conflict; cooperation; water management; Isfara River; Big Ferghana Canal; Ferghana Valley
MANAGED AQUIFER RECHARGE USING QUATERNARY-TREATED WASTEWATER: AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE (pp. 246-261)
aDepartment of Natural Resource Economics, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman; bDepartment of Soil, Water and Agricultural Engineering, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman; cWater Desalination and Reuse Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia
Contact: Slim Zekri, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: An excess of 31 million m3/y of tertiary-treated wastewater is expected in Muscat, Oman, by 2015. This paper addresses the technical and cost estimation of managed aquifer recharge after reverse-osmosis treatment. The results indicate that the project is appealing from an economic perspective. The total cost varies between USD 0.353 and USD 0.550 per cubic metre, depending on the cost of electricity, the interest rate and the life span of the project. The project may face rejection from domestic users, who may be unwilling to accept mixing treated wastewater with the current water supply due to health risks. An alternative to indirect potable reuse is the installation of a separate network to service industrial users.
Keywords: managed aquifer recharge; treated wastewater; capital cost; operating and maintenance cost; reverse osmosis; Oman
POOR STATE OF IRRIGATION STATISTICS IN INDIA: THE CASE OF PUMPS, WELLS AND TUBEWELLS (pp. 262-281)
Contact: Aditi Mukherji, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Groundwater is the main source of irrigation in India, but there is a huge uncertainty about the number of groundwater structures. This paper compares data from four government sources on wells and tubewells, diesel pumps and electric pumps for time periods from the mid-1980s to the mid-2000s. There is a wide divergence in data, which is not attributable to mere time lags or definitional differences. This is a cause for concern, because lack of reliable estimates of these numbers affects realistic calculations of important variables such as groundwater extraction, electricity subsidies, and the carbon footprint of agricultural groundwater use.
Keywords: India; irrigation statistics; groundwater; wells and tubewells; pumps
IMPACTS OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY ON IRRIGATION WATER DEMAND: A CASE STUDY OF SAUDI ARABIA (pp. 282-292)
Abstract: Saudi Arabia’s groundwater resources have been heavily over-exploited to achieve food self-sufficiency. The country enacted a new agricultural policy that discourages the cultivation of wheat and encourages that of vegetables and fruits. This has produced significant reductions in irrigation water demand as well as food self-sufficiency. This paper reviews the performance of the Saudi agricultural sector and presents four scenarios forecasting the new policy’s long-term impacts on the use of water for agriculture. The findings show that the new policy does not support sustainable utilization of groundwater resources. Additional policy modifications are needed to optimize the combination of import and domestic production of agricultural products based on a sustainable water utilization strategy.
Keywords: Saudi Arabia; irrigation water demand; food self-sufficiency; agricultural policy; non-conventional water resources
RAINWATER AND GREYWATER HARVESTING FOR URBAN FOOD SECURITY IN LA SOUKRA, TUNISIA (pp. 293-307)
aInternational Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada; bInstitut Superieur des Technologies de l’Environnement et de l’Urbanisme, Sidi-Daoud, Tunisie; cFaculte des Sciences, Tunis El Manar University, El Manar, Tunisie
Contact: Mark Redwood, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: This paper presents the findings of an integrated household water treatment and reuse system for agriculture in La Soukra, Tunisia. The researchers found that the system has an internal rate of return of 17% and a net present value range from USD 26,000 (at a 5% discount rate) to USD 11,000 (for a 10% discount rate). Benefits included more water for irrigation, reduced costs to service providers, increased agricultural production from greenhouses and expanded agricultural options. These results suggest that investments in rainwater harvesting and greywater treatment at the farm level can increase the financial feasibility of peri-urban farms, which are often faced with pressure from urban growth. The systems can also help build household resilience to broader environmental change by lowering the exposure of farmers to burdens associated with infrequent access to water and poor-quality soil.
Keywords: rainwater harvesting; wastewater; Tunisia; urban; agriculture
AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION IN THE BANG PHLUANG IRRIGATION SCHEME, PRACHINBURI SUB-BASIN, THAILAND, AND ITS IMPACTS ON WATER MANAGEMENT (pp. 308-321)
aCandidate, School of Environment, Resources and Development (SERD), Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Klong Luang, Thailand; bCentre for Mountain Ecosystem Studies (CMES), Kunming Institute of Botany (KIB), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Kunming, China
Contact: Man Purotaganon, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Thailand has embarked on river basin–focused policies to improve technical infrastructure for and participation in water management. The Bang Phluang Irrigation Scheme in Thailand’s eastern region was started in 1971 to provide irrigation water, to control floods and to prevent salt-water intrusion. Farmers have increased the number of rice harvests and introduced fish and shrimp cultures. Agricultural intensification, however, has led to competition for water and to conflicts among farmers. The paper analyzes, within the context of policy and institutional change, the effects of agricultural intensification on water use, water management, conflicts, and conflict resolution.
Keywords: Thailand; local institutions; water conflicts; dialogue; agricultural intensification
WATER POLICY IN JORDAN (pp. 322-334)
Contact: Khaled A. Alqadi, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: The primary problems in water quality and availability in Jordan stem from poor longterm planning. This paper looks at past and current policies related to water management, considers their weaknesses, and suggests means of improving the management and planning aspects and the need for desalination infrastructure. The major water issues in Jordan can be attributed to both policy implementation failure and a lack of on-the-ground application of regulations. This study indicates that desalination of Red Sea water can be a long-term viable option to meet the growing domestic water needs within Jordan.
Keywords: Jordan; water management; policies; desalination infrastructure
WATER DEMAND VERSUS SUPPLY IN SAUDI ARABIA: CURRENT AND FUTURE CHALLENGES (pp. 335-344)
Abstract: Saudi Arabia is facing a chronic water-shortage problem. Demand far exceeds the sustainable yield of both conventional and non-conventional water resources. The resulting demand–supply gap is being bridged through groundwater depletion. In this paper, demand–supply gaps for the coming 20 years are projected under three scenarios: optimistic, moderate and pessimistic. Future sustainable water yields are calculated and allocated to projected water demand in the domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors. The study shows that Saudi Arabia will not be able to bridge the demand–supply gap in the near future. Intensive water demand management measures are needed in all sectors to minimize future demand–supply gaps, especially focused on the largest water consumer: the agricultural sector.
Keywords: Saudi Arabia; water supply and demand; water shortage forecast; wastewater; desalination; non-conventional water resources
OPINION: REGULATION AND REALITY: SOME REFLECTIONS ON 50 YEARS OF INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE IN WATER AND WASTEWATER (pp. 345-354)
Abstract: Over 50 years of experience in the water sector is presented through the lens of a practitioner who has worked in over 30 countries mainly on wastewater but also on utility management, privatization and institutional development. This article tracks important developments in wastewater treatment leading to reuse but, more importantly, describes experiences where effective regulation and reality have parted company.
Keywords: regulation; wastewater; dysfunctional assets; sewerage; privatization; standards
Institutional Governance and Regulation of Water Services. The Essential Elements, by Michael Rouse, London, IWA Publishing, 2013