Third World Centre for Water Management

Journals

Volume 25, Issue 3

Theme Issue: Dams and Resettlement – Asian Experiences and Insights

ONLINE ACCESS TO THIS ISSUE


LESSONS FROM RESETTLEMENT CAUSED BY LARGE DAM PROJECTS: CASE STUDIES FROM JAPAN, INDONESIA AND SRI LANKA (pp. 407-418)

Ryo Fujikuraa, Mikiyasu Nakayamab  and Naruhiko Takesadac

aFaculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University Japan; bDepartment of International Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Japan; cFaculty of Economics, Meikai University, Japan

Contact: Mikiyasu Nakayama, e-mail: nakayama@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Abstract: This paper examines six case studies of resettlement of villagers covering seven dams, namely the Ikawa Dam, Jintsu Dams and Miyagase Dam in Japan, the Koto Panjang Dam and BiliiBili Dam in Indonesia, and a final comparative study of the Saguling Dam in Indonesia and the Kotmale Dam in Sri Lanka. The studies underline the need for adequate institutional arrangements that incorporate medium- and long-term perspectives on resettlers’ livelihoods, and for the long-term commitment of governments or developers to ensure livelihood restoration. The establishment of a development agency as the authority for regional development in resettlement areas is another approach for dealing with institutional and implementation problems. Finally, the factor of resettlers’ emotions must also be considered.


JAPANESE EXPERIENCE OF INVOLUNTARY RESETTLEMENT: LONG-TERM CONSEQUENCES OF RESETTLEMENT FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE IKAWA DAM (pp. 419-430)

Naruhiko T. Akesada, Faculty of Economics, Meikai University, Japan

E-mail: naruhiko@d02.itscom.net

Abstract: Involuntary resettlement undertaken for dam construction, especially in developing countries, is often severely criticized. This study reviewed the experience and long-term consequences of involuntary resettlement in Japan. The resettlers of Ikawa Dam, who moved and settled into newly developed resettlement areas, were interviewed 50 years after their resettlement. The results of the interviews revealed the following: (i) Resettlers’ motives behind their choices were diverse. (ii) Although the community currently suffers from depopulation and aging, many resettlers are satisfied with their choices and livelihood. (iii) The main reason for their satisfaction lies in the successful upbringing of their children or next generation. It is argued that future resettlement programmes require adequate attention to resettlers’ voluntary choice and their far-sightedness in considering the next generation.


RENTING SUBMERGED LAND FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD REHABILITATION OF RESETTLED FAMILIES: CASES OF JINTSU-GAWA DAMS IN JAPAN (pp. 431-439)

Mikiyasu Nakayamaa and Kumi Furuyashikib

aDepartment of International Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Japan; bUNDP, Cambodia

Contact: Mikiyasu Nakayama, e-mail: nakayama@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Abstract: A unique rent scheme was adopted as a compensation scheme for resettlers of three small-scale dams constructed in the early 1950s along Jintsu-gawa in Toyama Prefecture of Japan. The electric power company of the district built these dams for hydropower generation. In the process of negotiations, representatives of the communities refused to sell their land but instead suggested that a rent scheme be adopted. The district electric power company agreed. This is the only such case to ever be materialized in the world, and the scheme has survived to date. Lessons from these cases may be applicable for future dam construction projects in the developing world.


ESTIMATING THE INDIRECT COSTS OF RESETTLEMENT DUE TO DAM CONSTRUCTION: A JAPANESE CASE STUDY (pp. 441-457)

Atsushi Hattoria and Ryo Fujikurab

aHosei Graduate School of Environmental Management, Japan; bFaculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Japan

Contact: Ryo Fujikura, e-mail: fujikura@hosei.ac.jp

Abstract: In order to help clarify the true costs of resettlement for dam construction, the measures taken for consensus building and livelihood rehabilitation for people affected by the Miyagase Dam, a state-of-the-art dam in Japan that started operating in 2000, were studied. An area of 490 ha was submerged and the number of displaced households was 281. While the dam construction project lasted for 30 years, resettlement-related activities, such as compensation negotiations and the establishment of resettlement sites, continued for 20 years after the announcement of the dam project. ‘Direct’ compensation costs, which were included in the official project cost, include financial compensation for submerged land and property. They are estimated at about ¥24.5 billion. ‘Indirect’ compensation costs are not included in the official project cost. The largest component of the indirect compensation costs was the various projects conducted based on the Upstream Regional Stimulation Plan, amounting to a total of ¥67.9 billion. Based on the Plan, 85 projects were implemented, including slope reinforcement, village roads, waterworks and sewerage works, schools, afforestation, parks, childcare centres and waste treatment facilities. In addition to the projects, resettlement sites were offered at lower rates than the values of adjacent land, and the total difference in costs amounted to ¥3.3 billion. Moreover, ¥2.8 billion was paid as ‘gratitude money’ to people displaced by the dam. The total indirect compensation costs including personnel costs for officers devoted to the resettlement are estimated at ¥78.6 billion. The direct compensation costs amount to only 6.1% of the officially announced total project costs of ¥399.3 billion. If indirect compensation costs are also included, the total project costs would amount to ¥477.9 billion, and the total direct and indirect compensation costs of¥103.1 billion would amount to 21.5% of total project costs.


CONDITION OF POVERTY IN KOTO PANJANG RESETTLEMENT VILLAGES OF WEST SUMATRA: AN ANALYSIS USING SURVEY DATA OF FAMILIES RECEIVING CASH COMPENSATION (pp. 459-466)

Syafruddin Karimia, Mikiyasu Nakayamab and Naruhiko Takesadac

aCenter for Economic Research and Institutional Development, Andalas University, Padang, Indonesia; bDepartment of International Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Japan; cFaculty of Economics, Meikai University, Japan

Contact: Mikiyasu Nakayama, e-mail: nakayama@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Abstract: The Koto Panjang Dam project has risked the lives of 4886 families from 10 villages of Riau and West Sumatra Provinces, Indonesia. The most serious risk is that affected families have to accept relocation of the entire village. The resettlement programme had planned the development of private housing and public facilities for affected families. The programme had also planned rubber plantations to reconstruct livelihoods and compensate families for all kinds of property demolished due to dam construction. The process of relocation commenced in 1993 and ceased in 1997 when the inundation of the dam began. Since the Koto Panjang Dam construction project has involved involuntary resettlement, it is necessary for the project to benefit affected families. Some villages in Riau Province are understood to have experienced livelihood improvement. In contrast, the resettlement villages in West Sumatra Province, Tanjung Balik and Tanjung Pauh, are considered to be under risk of impoverishment. More than 60% of families in West Sumatra’s Koto Panjang resettlement villages have suffered a worsened livelihood condition. This paper reports on the condition of poor families in the Koto Panjang resettlement villages of West Sumatra.


EFFECTS OF CONSTRUCTION OF THE BILI-BILI DAM (INDONESIA) ON LIVING CONDITIONS OF FORMER RESIDENTS AND THEIR PATTERNS OF RESETTLEMENT AND RETURN (pp. 467-477)

Rampisela Dorotea Agnesa, Mochtar S. Sollea, Adri Saida and Ryo Fujikurab

aFaculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia; bFaculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Tokyo,  Japan

Contact: Ryo Fujikura, e-mail: fujikura@hosei.ac.jp

Abstract: Construction of the Bili-Bili Multi-purpose Dam on the Jeneberang River, 31 km from the city of Makassar in Indonesia’s province of South Sulawesi, was completed in 1997. The dam construction and creation of a reservoir necessitated the relocation of 2085 families by the year 2000. From among them, 1079 families chose to move to locations close to the new reservoir (in Gowa District) and 415 moved elsewhere, mostly to urban areas. The remaining 591 chose to accept an offer of free farmland and a house in the district of either Mamuju or Luwu under Indonesia’s Transmigration Programme. Both districts are located more than 400 km away from the original settlement. It was found that, after the initial relocation, the number of resettled families living in both districts dropped significantly. It is thought that many of them returned to the areas adjacent to the reservoir, because all resettlers were allowed to choose their destinations independently. The living conditions in Mamuju District were found to be fairly satisfactory, but this was not the case in Luwu. Emotional factors, rather than economic ones, motivated some resettlers to leave the transmigration areas and return to areas close to the reservoir. They returned ‘home’ after having saved enough money from living in the transmigration areas. The second generation of transmigrants, however, considers their present location to be their home, and they see no incentive in moving to live in areas near the reservoir.


LIVELIHOOD REBUILDING OF DAM-AFFECTED COMMUNITIES: CASE STUDIES FROM SRI LANKA AND INDONESIA (pp. 479-489)

Jagath Manatungea, Naruhiko Takesadab, Sachiko Miyatac and Lakshman Herathd

aDepartment of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka; bFaculty of Economics, Meikai University, Japan; cThe World Bank, Washington, DC, USA; dUniversity of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Contact: Jagath Manatunge, e-mail: manatunge@mrt.civil.ac.lk

Abstract: This paper discuss two cases of resettlement related to dam development: the Saguling project in West Java and the Kotmale project in Sri Lanka. Resettlers of these two projects were offered new livelihoods created by the project. Their successes and failures in restoring income subsequent to relocation are discussed. In both the projects, alternative compensation schemes had to be formulated because it was not possible to provide resettlers with the same amount of farmland in the vicinity. The strategic use of new opportunities, by way of providing new prospects in aquaculture development, was promoted as compensation for resettlers of Saguling and, as a result, they were able to enjoy superior economic and social benefits. Two options, based on income restoration through land-based alternatives, were offered for Kotmale resettlers: move away to new settlements or resettle in riparian areas after receiving tea plots. Two decades after relocation, their socioeconomic conditions are better than those who were not affected by the project. However, many questions remain which raise doubts whether resettlers were able to reap the intended benefits; these are discussed in this paper. Some of them include issues of social marginalization and inequality, the negative consequences of lack of access to credit, and over-exploitation of resources that eroded the earnings potential. The following lessons were learnt from the two case studies: livelihood rebuilding efforts should be complemented by introducing opportunities of securing financial assistance; attitude towards risk is crucial in the success of livelihood rebuilding; resettlement options should address the dynamism of local socio-economic conditions and be designed with local collaboration; sustainability of production capacity and economic viability in the long term should be emphasized; and while outsider influence cannot be controlled, the capacity of the local community can be strengthened.


CLIMATE CHANGE AND ASSOCIATED IMPLICATIONS FOR THE WATER POLICY FRAMEWORK IN THE BASIN OF VENETIKOS (pp. 491-506)

Evangelos A. Baltas, Department of Hydraulics, Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

E-mail: baltas@agro.auth.gr

Abstract: The impact of climate change on the hydrological regime and water resources in the basin of Venetikos has been assessed in this paper. Venetikos is a sub-basin of the Aliakmon River Basin, located in northern Greece. A monthly conceptual water balance model was calibrated using historical hydrometeorological data to determine changes in stream-flow runoff under two different equilibrium scenarios (UKHI, CCC) for year 2020, 2050 and 2100. The application of the two scenarios resulted in reduction of the mean winter and summer runoff values, and increase in maximum annual and decrease in minimum annual runoff values. Additionally, an increase of potential and actual evapo-transpiration was noticed due to temperature increase. As a result, a reduction of snow accumulation, as well as a decrease in spring runoff values and soil moisture are expected. A shift of the wet period towards December is remarked, resulting in severe prolongation of the dry period. Consequently, the water policy should be revised in order to address the above possible future changes.


SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY: TRENDS, CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR THE MENA REGION (pp. 507-522)

Olli Varisa and Khaled Abu-Zeidb

aHelsinki University of Technology, Water Unit, Finland; bCentre for Environment & Development for the Arab Region & Europe, Cairo, Egypt

Contact: Olli Varis, e-mail: olli.varis@tkk.fi

Abstract: The development trends, prospects and challenges of the water sector in the countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) by the year 2030 are the topic of this analysis. A brief outline of water resources and contemporary issues of importance in the MENA region is presented first. Thereafter, the future prospects of the water sector are scrutinized, in the light of development projections in several domains that can be considered as critical externalities of the water sector. The following trends and tendencies were identified as constituting a complex vicious circle:

– Population continues to grow and urban population doubles
– Rural water stress and poverty
– Economy is under structural pressures
– Regional integration is still low
– Good quality education is under pressure from massive population growth
– Growing problem of unemployment, most new jobs are informal
– Food security is increasingly based on self-reliance instead of self-sufficiency
– Climate change may decrease reliability of water availability
– Environmental stress needs to be relieved.


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