Third World Centre for Water Management

Journals

Volume 20, Issue 4

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GROUNDWATER RESOURCES IN LEBANON: A VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT (pp. 475-491)

M. Metni, M. El-Fadel, S. Sadek, R. Kayal and D. Lichaa El Khoury, Water Resources Center, American University of Beirut, Lebanon

Contact: M. El-Fadel, e-mail: mfadel@aub.edu.lb

Abstract: This paper presents a regional groundwater vulnerability assessment for Lebanon using the DRASTIC model coupled with a GIS-based framework to prioritize protection efforts, whereby the most vulnerable areas to groundwater are targeted first, thus optimizing the allocation of financial and human resources. The objective of the study is to initiate a systematic approach to better manage and protect the country’s groundwater resources.


OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF WATER FOR SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE (pp. 493-506)

Dang Minh Phuonga and Chennat Gopalakrishnanb

aNong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; bDepartment of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA

Contact: Chennat Gopalakrishnan, e-mail: chennat@hawaii.edu

Abstract: This paper discusses optimal management for water resources in the context of the over-exploitation of fish and the pollution of freshwater fisheries, along with aquaculture, in inland and coastal areas. An optimal control model maximizing social surplus, focusing on the dynamic relationship of fish stock externality, price, outputs, costs and polluting wastes is developed. It provides the necessary conditions for optimal management for both fishery and aquaculture, which produce the same product for the market, and also develops time-paths and phase diagrams for policy application.


A MEANS TO AN END: STUDYING THE EXISTING ENVIRONMENT FOR PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION IN THE WATER AND SANITATION SECTOR (pp. 507-522)

Rashid B. Al-Hmoud and Jeffrey Edwards, Department of Economics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA

Contact: Jeffrey Edwards, e-mail: jeffrey.edwards@ttu.edu

Abstract: Given that the degree of success of private sector participation in the water and sanitation sector is such a hotly debated topic, there is a need to empirically study the environment within which private investment currently exists. Using Logit estimation, and investigating 29 political, economic and demographic variables from 39 developing countries, it was found that neither the political nor demographic environments play a role in explaining the existence of private sector participation. However, the empirical estimates show that many economic variables do play a significant role. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that much of the determination of reaching financial closure with the private sector is due to proprietary conditions between the private sector and the governments involved.


KNOWLEDGE SHARING AND OTHER DECISION FACTORS INFLUENCING ADOPTION OF AQUACULTURE IN INDONESIA  (pp. 523-536)

Sachiko Miyataa and Jagath Manatungeb

aCourse of International Studies, Institute of Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; bDepartment of Environmental Science and Human Engineering, Saitama University, Sakura-ku, Sataima, Japan

Contact: Sachiko Miyata, e-mail: kmiyata@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Abstract: This paper examines the factors that influenced adoption of Floating Net aquaculture (FNA) utilizing the reservoir water by farmers who were resettled as a result of a dam constructed in Indonesia. Data from 400 households were analyzed and it was found that the main reason households adopted FNA was that they observed their friends’, family’s or neighbour’s success with FNA. The main reason households did not adopt FNA was the difficulty in financing the initial capital cost. Additionally, based on further examination of information collected from 400 households as well as group interviews, tests were made to find whether the adoption factor changed with the timing of adoption. ‘Learning from others’ seems to be the most important factor during the earlier years but not in the later years of the adoption period. These findings provide important lessons for future policy in managing similar water resource development projects and this paper offers some policy recommendations.


AN APPLICATION OF THE CONTINGENT VALUATION METHOD TO ASSESS THE EFFICIENCY OF THE INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE OF IRRIGATION PROPERTY RIGHTS: THE CASE OF THE PENINSULA OF SANTA ELENA, ECUADOR (pp. 537-551)

Paúl A. Herreraa,b, Guido Van Huylenbroeckb and Ramón L. Espinelb

aDepartment of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; bEscuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, Guayaquil, Ecuador

Contact: Paúl A. Herrera, e-mail: aherrera@espol.edu.ec

Abstract: Many of the observed problems of water management in developing countries are linked to inefficient institutional structures of property rights. This is particularly the case with many public irrigation systems that have never achieved the expected social and economic benefits. In this paper it is argued that the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) can be applied to evaluate the degree of inefficiency of such institutional structure for the case of one of the most important irrigation systems in Ecuador in the Peninsula of Santa Elena (PSE). The procedure applied consists of eliciting an economic value among irrigators. Thus, Willingness to Pay (WTP) questions are used to value a specific outcome of a policy intended to assure the right to have an efficient management of the canals. The evaluation criterion consists of comparing the resulting economic value with the price currently charged to irrigators. Any deviation is considered an economic rent which is wasted. Thus, CVM is used to investigate the potential benefits of a hypothetical change in the existing property rights structure. The estimation results assert that the proposed change would provide positive net benefits to water users in the PSE.


IMPLEMENTING GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAMMES FOR WATER AND SEWER SYSTEMS IN TEXAS COLONIAS (pp. 553-564)

Nicole Cartera and Leonard Ortolanob

aCenter for Economic Research and Teaching, Mexico City, Mexico; bDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

Contact: Professor Leonard Ortolano, e-mail: ortolano@standford.edu

Abstract: Experience in colonias -informal communities in Texas characterized by the absence of water and sewer systems- demonstrates that a well-funded programme to subsidize infrastructure can falter if the incentives and management capacity of involved organizations do not support effective implementation. The Texas Legislature established the Economic Distressed Areas Programme (EDAP) in 1989 to subsidize service providers constructing water and sewer systems in colonias. A longitudinal assessment of EDAP found that the programme performed poorly until the late 1990s when the institutional context of the agency administering the programme changed. These changes led lo a more effective set of incentives to implement the programme and improved performance. General lessons regarding programme performance are derived from the research results.


EU WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE VS. INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: THE SEVEN MISMATCHES (pp. 565-575)

Muhammad Mizanur Rahaman, Olli Varis and Tommi Kajander, Water Resources Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland

Contact: Olli Varis, e-mail: olli.varis@hut.fi

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze how the EU Water Framework Directive complies with the international principles concerning Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) agreed in major conferences. The outcomes of the International Conference on Water and Environment (Dublin, 1992), the Second World Water Forum (The Hague, 2000), the International Conference on Freshwater (Bonn, 2001), and the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) (Johannesburg, 2002) were compared with the EU Water Framework Directive. Seven notable mismatches were found, even though several EU countries have played a leading role in those conferences. The question arises whether the outcome of these conferences is not efficient enough to influence EU policies -do the conferences just produce collections of idealistic buzzwords or is there a requirement for different principles regarding IWRM for developing countries and developed countries?

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