WATER GOVERNANCE IN GUJARAT STATE, INDIA (pp. 131-147)
Abstract: This paper examines the groundwater and surface water situation in Gujarat State, India. Constant depletion of groundwater and rapid quality deterioration call for legislation to prevent over-exploitation, and adoption of a rational water pricing policy based on a volumetric system. In the case of surface water governance, enhancement of institutional capacity for managing resettlement and rehabilitation problems, a complementary role for rain water harvesting, and community involvement in irrigation management including legislation on participatory irrigation management (PIM) are some of the immediate reform initiatives that have been emphasized.
GROUNDWATER OVERDRAFT REDUCTION THROUGH AGRICULTURAL ENERGY POLICY: INSIGHTS FROM INDIA AND MEXICO (pp. 149-164)
aSouth Asia Regional Office, International Water Management Institute, Hyderabad, India; bSustainable Groundwater Management, International Water Management Institute, Anand, India
Contact: Christopher A. Scott, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Rapid expansion of groundwater irrigation has transformed the rural economy in regions around the world, leading to significant increases in agricultural productivity and rising incomes. Farmer investment in wells and pumps has driven this expansion on the demand side; however, the supply of cheap agricultural energy -usually electrical power- is a critical though often overlooked driver of the groundwater boom. One serious outcome in numerous regions around the world has been groundwater overdraft; where pumping exceeds aquifer recharge, water tables have declined and water quality has deteriorated. India and Mexico are two of the largest users of groundwater in the world and both face critical overdraft challenges. The two countries are compared, given that electrical energy supply and pricing are primary driving forces behind groundwater pumping for irrigation in India and Mexico alike. Both countries have attempted regulatory measures to reduce groundwater overdraft. However, with low energy costs and readily available connections, there are few financial disincentives for farmers to limit pumping. The linkages between energy and irrigation are reviewed, comparing and contrasting India and Mexico. Examples of legal, regulatory and participatory approaches to groundwater management are assessed. Finally, the implications of linking electrical power pricing and supply with ongoing groundwater regulation efforts in both countries are explored.
KNOWLEDGE CREATION IN THE WATER SECTOR: TOWARDS A LEARNING WATER ORGANIZATION (pp. 165-175)
Abstract: In this paper, some light is shed on approaches to the creation and re-construction of water knowledge and the means to co-create a water learning organization. In the water sector, one of the fundamental challenges in knowledge creation is that organizational information and knowledge do not match the external complexity. A model of knowledge creation is presented which shows how institutional knowledge can be created in water management. It is concluded that water knowledge is created through developing a process of transforming water tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. The knowledge creation is realized through a process of socialization. A case study on private-public partnership in Amman City is presented.
RESPONDING TO THE WATER CRISIS IN PAKISTAN (pp. 177-192)
Abstract: In recent years, Pakistan has suffered from severe water shortages, flooding and declining water quality. The worsening water crisis must be resolved if the country is ever to achieve stability and develop. Using water more efficiently is a necessary but insufficient strategy. Far deeper changes are required, including cultural and social paradigm shifts that will help the country evolve from a feudal society to a modern one. A blueprint for managing the water crisis is suggested that includes slowing population growth, increasing education, using less water in agriculture, and normalizing relations with India.
TOWARDS A MIDDLE EAST AT PEACE: HIDDEN ISSUES IN ARAB-ISRAELI HYDROPOLITICS (pp. 193-104)
aDepartment of Geography, Oranim School of Education, Tivon, Israel; bDepartment of Geosciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
Contact: Aaron T. Wolf, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: When peace negotiations do one day resume between Israelis and Arabs, shared water resources will again take centre stage, acting both as an irritant between the parties, and as a tremendous inducement to reach agreement. The ‘hidden’ hydropolitical issues that will need to be resolved between Israel, Lebanon and Syria in the course of eventual boundary talks are considered. Two of these issues, the village of Ghajar and its relation to the Wazani Springs, and the possibility of groundwater flow from the Litani to the Jordan headwaters, change the fundamental understanding of the relationship between hydrologic and political claims, and could threaten the entire approach to water negotiations both between Israel and Syria and between Israel and Lebanon. Fortunately, other agreements within the basin can inform the path solutions here might take. The most critical step towards conflict resolution is separating the concepts of territorial sovereignty from water security. This can be done most effectively by offering joint management, monitoring and enforcement strategies, as well as encouraging greater transparency in water data across boundaries.
WATER POLLUTION IN UKRAINE: THE SEARCH FOR POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS (pp. 205-218)
Contact: Hadrian F. Cook, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: In Ukraine, average and maximum concentrations of certain pollutants in inland water bodies are unacceptably high, while the number of heavy pollution accidents (one-out effluent discharges capable of causing health hazards) is increasing. Meanwhile, the transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy is associated with severe economic downturn and a marked industrial decline. However, no comprehensive analyses related to issues linking water pollution and socio-economic situation during the period 1991-2003 have been done. It is considered unlikely that much can be achieved to improve water quality, at the state level, in the near future. Some improvement can be achieved through changes in the system of pollution control and in public attitude, as well as obtaining relevant expertise and funds from abroad.
PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT IN TURKEY (pp. 219-228)
Contact: Y. Ersoy Yildirim, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Turkey has developed 50% of its total irrigable land. Transfer of irrigation systems to users started at a slow pace in the early 1950s. By the end of 2001, an area of over 1 663 730 ha, which corresponds to nearly 87.2% of the DSI operated irrigation area, had been transferred to and was being managed fully by water user organizations. A comprehensive review of land and water resources, monitoring and evaluation of irrigation projects, transfer of irrigation systems and the effects of transfer on socio-economic structure and environment is provided, considering the results for the year 2001.
WATER ALLOCATION SYSTEMS IN TEXAS (pp. 229-242)
Abstract: Allocation of water resources among nations, states, regions, water management organizations and numerous water users is a governing concern in water management in Texas as well as throughout the world. Water allocation practices in Texas have evolved historically over centuries, with significant improvements occurring in recent years that continue to be refined. Texas shares water with Mexico and several neighbouring states in the United States. Thousands of government agencies, cities, private companies and citizens within Texas hold rights to use the waters of the state. Legal rights to use surface water differ from those for groundwater. Surface water allocation for the Lower Rio Grande is different to that for the rest of the state. With growing demands on limited water resources, expanding and refining water allocation systems has become a central governing concern in water management. The Texas experience illustrates fundamental principles, issues, management strategies and complexities involved in developing and administering water allocation systems.
ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF IRRIGATION TO POVERTY REDUCTION AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS (pp. 243-257)
Abstract: Irrigation in developing countries tends to be stereotyped as equity reducing, in competition with other uses for scarce water resources, and often resulting in negative impacts for women and other disadvantaged groups. Agricultural intensification through the practice of irrigation as a strategy for poverty reduction is examined. There are four inter-related mechanisms through which irrigated agriculture can reduce poverty. These are: improvements in the levels and security of productivity, employment and incomes for irrigating farm households and farm labour; the linkage and multiplier effects of agricultural intensification for the wider economy; provision of opportunities for diversification of rural livelihoods; and multiple uses of irrigation supply. There are also significant risks that badly designed and managed irrigation can negatively impact on poverty. It is concluded that irrigated farming varies widely in its form and impacts, and has diverse local attributes. Water resource management decisions must recognize this and be based on an holistic and livelihood-centred assessment of irrigation benefits and costs that goes beyond food production objectives.
Rethinking Water Management. Innovative Approaches to Contemporary Issues, edited by Caroline M. Figuéres, Cecilia Tortajada and Johan Rockström, London, Earthscan, 2003