Third World Centre for Water Management

Journals

Volume 19, Issue 2

Special Issue: Public-Private Partnership in the Middle East and North Africa

ONLINE ACCESS TO THIS ISSUE

FOREWORD

INTRODUCTION


PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP: MAJOR HINDRANCES TO THE PRIVATE SECTOR’S PARTICIPATION IN THE FINANCING AND MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC INFRASTRUCTURES VIA DELEGATED MANAGEMENT (pp. 123-129)

Mounir Zouggari, National Office of Potable Water (ONEP), ONEP Station de traitement, Avenue Oued Akrach, Rabat, Morocco

E-mail: onepdao@onep.ma

Abstract: This paper concerns the participation of the private sector in the financing and management of public infrastructures and focuses, more particularly, on the forms of this participation. The author discusses exclusively hardships associated with private sector involvement in the financing and the management of infrastructures through delegated management.


PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP: WHICH STRATEGY FOR THE DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION SECTOR IN MOROCCO? (pp. 131-138)

Nawal Khalifa and Driss Essaouabi, Office National de I’Eau Potable, Station de Traitement, Avenue Oued Akrach, Rabat, Morocco

E-mail: onepdgcm@onep.ma

Abstract: The paper considers the current guidelines and orientations of the Moroccan public authorities, which are converging towards the increasing disengagement of the state in terms of the finance and management of infrastructures. In addition, with a view lo the will of the public authorities lo drain foreign investments deemed lo be a true vector of economic development, the paper sheds light on those recent changes that have affected the water and sanitation sector in Morocco through the analysis of the concept of public-private partnership in so far as the following are concerned: the drinking water and sanitation sector; the strategic features of the drinking water and sanitation industry; and the formulation of a development strategy of public-private partnership in the drinking water and sanitation sector.


PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN THE WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION SECTOR: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF YEMEN (pp. 139-152)

Anwer Sahooly, Technical Secretariat for Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Reform, Republic of Yemen, Sana’a, Republic of Yemen

E-mail: techsec@y.net.ye

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to provide information on the institutional development of the water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in Yemen, its achievements, challenges and constraints. In 1997 the government of Yemen approved its water supply and sanitation reform agenda in the form of a Council of Ministers decree and since then the implementation of the reform agenda has started with technical and financial assistance from Germany, the Netherlands, the World Bank and other donors in addition to the contribution from the government of Yemen. The main principles of the reform agenda are these: the separation of the executive from the regulatory functions; decentralization of service provision and corporatization through the establishment of autonomous WSS corporations; the establishment of a regulatory agency; capacity building and human resources development; and public-private partnership (PPP). This paper gives a summary of what has been achieved in the implementation of the reform agenda in general and concentrates on the pilot case of the first PPP initiative in Sana’a, the capital of Yemen. The paper takes us through the stages of PPP option study right through to the preparation of the request for proposals, which was completed in August 2002.


CASABLANCA (MOROCCO): AN EXAMPLE OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (pp. 153-158)

Claude Jamati, Bureau de Liaison Maroc, 20 000 Casablanca, Morocco

E-mail: c.jamati@atlasnet.net.ma

Abstract: Management of the water supply, sanitation and electricity in the city of Casablanca in Morocco has been delegated by the Moroccan Government to a private sector consortium, Lydec, since 1997. During the last five years, Lydec has invested more than 220 million euros, with nearly half of this amount earmarked for sanitation. Overall results indicate a better customer service, an increase of more than 20% in terms of the number of population served with water and electricity, and a saving of 24 million m3 of water per year. However, the main achievement is the trust that has been developed between the customers, the government sector and the private operator, which allows a better service to be provided to all.


COMMERCIALIZATION AND PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN JORDAN (pp. 159-172)

Ibrahim Abu-Shamsa and Akram Rabadib

aPlanning and Management Unit, Jordan Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Jordan; bPIanning and Management Unit, Jordan Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Jordan

E-mails: ibrahim_abu_shams@mwi.gov.jo, akram_rabadi@mwi.gov.jo

Abstract: In 1997 the Hashemíte Kingdom of Jordan enunciated major policy changes in the water sector, emphasizing water demand management and a major role for the private sector. The government embarked upon a privatization programme, the goal being to orient Jordan’s economy more towards the private sector and best present Jordan to the international financial community. The specific objectives of the programme include increasing the efficiency of enterprises, consolidating public finance, attracting private investment into the economy and deepening the financial markets. The Water Authority of Jordan (WAJ), one of the authorities of the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI), entered into a management contract with an international water services operator in April 1999 for the management of all water-related services within the governorate of Amman. MWI and WAJ have been considering other options for water and wastewater services in other governorates of Jordan. They concluded a management contract for the northern area and Wadi Mousa in the south, a governmental company for Aqaba and build, operate and transfer for As-Samar wastewater treatment plant.


THE STRATEGY OF RESTRUCTURING AND REHABILITATING THE GREATER AMMAN WATER NETWORK (pp. 173-183)

Ibrahim Abu-Shamsa and Akram Rabadib

aPlanning and Management Unit, Jordan Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Jordan; bPIanning and Management Unit, Jordan Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Jordan

E-mails: ibrahim_abu_shams@mwi.gov.jo, akram_rabadi@mwi.gov.jo

Abstract: Rapid population growth in Jordan has necessitated the prompt expansion of all social and economic services including service infrastructure such as pipelines. The financial loss arising from water pumped to consumers through the networks exceeds 50%, making the need to restructure and rehabilitate the network a top priority for the Water Authority of Jordan. Many studies have been done with the aim of reducing leaks and improving services. This paper draws from these studies and presents a strategy for restructuring The Amman Water Network.


SCENARIOS FOR PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN WATER MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY FROM JORDAN (pp. 185-201)

Odeh R. Al-Jayyousi, Applied Science, Amman University, Jordan

E-mail: jayousi@go.com.jo

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to document the experience of public-private partnership (PPP) in the management of the domestic water sector in Amman city, Jordan. It also intends to reflect on the transformations in water management after the introduction of PPP using metaphors from ecology. Scenarios for water management are developed and assessed based on financial viability and political feasibility. Four scenarios for sustainable water development in Amman city are developed under two major drivers, i.e. importance and uncertainty. The scenarios developed in this paper are intended to illuminate possible ways that could affect the future of PPP for domestic water in Jordan. Based on document analysis, observations and lessons learned from ecology, scenarios for water management are developed. The process of building scenarios involves a number of steps, which include: (1) identification of focal issues and key decisions; (2) identification of key factors in the local environment; (3) listing and ranking driving forces by importance and uncertainty; (4) ranking driving forces by importance and uncertainty; and (5) considering implications. The outcomes under each critical uncertainty are assessed. Combinations of these outcomes will determine the general characteristics of each scenario. Lessons learned from the evolution of living organisms in nature, i.e. from innovation, growth, improvement and release, were utilized to characterize the water sector in Amman city after the introduction of PPP.


MAJOR TRENDS IN GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT: OPPORTUNITIES FOR PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP? (pp. 203-219)

Albert Tuinhofa, Fatma Attiab and Ele Jan Saafc

aRoyal Haskoning Hoofdweg 140, Netherlands; bMinistry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Kornish El Nil, Imbaba, Giza, Egypt; cGroundwater Sector Project, Royal Haskoning, Technical Assistance Project, Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Imbaba, Giza, Egypt

E-mails: a.tuinhof@royalhaskoning.com, f-attia@link.net, gws@soficom.com.eg

Abstract: Provision of sufficient water of good quality under growing water demands and increasing climate variability will be one of the main concerns for water managers in the coming decades. It is generally accepted that an integrated approach is required in which resource development options and demand management go hand in hand lo provide a management structure with balances between immediate demand from different user groups and the short- and long-term environmental functions of our global water resources. Groundwater plays an important role in achieving this goal provided that its interaction with surface water is fully recognized and its function is fully integrated in land and water planning. The success of integrated water resources management will also benefit from a broader partnership in planning, development and management of our water resources. The focal role of central government is gradually complemented with a growing responsibility of lower levels in the public sector and broader partnerships with the private sector. This paper describes the comparative characteristics of groundwater and its functions in integrated water resources management. Some major trends are discussed in the use of aquifers for enhancing the role of groundwater to cope with increasing water demands and changes in climate variability: the use of brackish groundwater; and the enhancement of recharge and subsurface storage and the ability of aquifers lo ameliorate water quality. These potential developments offer good opportunities lo enhance the role of the private sector under the regulatory control of the government. These options are particularly important for the Middle East and North Africa region as coping strategies lo alleviate the present water scarcity.


INSTITUTIONAL REFORM VISION FOR THE IRRIGATION SECTOR IN EGYPT (pp. 221-231)

Hesham Mohamed Kandil, Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Egypt, Kornish, El Nil Imbaba, Giza, Egypt

E-mail: kandil@mwrígov.eg

Abstract: Challenges facing the water sector in Egypt cal¡ for the adoption of an integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach, which integrates all available resources to meet escalating water demands of the different water use sectors. This paper intends to provide a review of the irrigation water sector drivers in Egypt in terms of challenges, policies and their characteristics. The paper also introduces a proposal for a vision for institutional reform in the irrigation water sector to provide the proper enabling environment for wide application of the IWRM concept and a greater role of the private sector in the irrigation sector. Some key steps to realize the institution reform vision in the irrigation water sector are also presented.


GENERAL PAPERS

POTABLE WATER TARIFFS IN MEXICO CITY: TOWARDS A POLICY BASED ON DEMAND MANAGEMENT? (pp. 233-247)

Boris Marañón-Pimentel, Mexican Institute for Water Technology, Jiutepec, Morelos, Mexico

E-mail: boris@tlaloc.imta.mx

Abstract: This paper evaluates whether potable water tariffs in Mexico City are directed towards the administration of demand management, or whether they are primarily a continuation of historical policies which have always put the main emphasis on supply management. The paper also reviews some technical aspects of tariff-related issues in Mexico City, as well as the situation at the national level.


IRRIGATED AREA FIGURES AS BUREAUCRATIC CONSTRUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE: THE CASE OF CHINA (pp. 249-262)

James E. Nickum, Tokyo Jogakkan Collegue, Machida-shi, Tokyo, Japan

E-mail: nickum@m.tjk.ac.jp

Abstract: This is a cautionary tale regarding the generation and use of irrigation statistics, given their intrinsic problems of measurement and their bureaucratic construction. China has one of the world’s largest irrigated areas, and probably its most intensively measured. Here the author explores the problems of measuring irrigated area, the principal categories used in China, the agencies that issue data and their probable biases and the difficulties of interpreting increases and decreases in irrigated area in any meaningful way. The author uses the purported decline in irrigated area in the 1980s and its recovery in the 1990s to illustrate these difficulties in interpretation.


TOWARDS POVERTY ALLEVIATION: THE WATER SECTOR PERSPECTIVES (pp. 263-277)

Q.K. Ahmad, Bangladesh Unnayan Parishad, Bangladesh

E-mail: bup@citechco.net

Abstract: Given the context of diminishing water availability as a result of water pollution and inadequate development of water resources on the supply side and increasing population and expanding economic activity on the demand side, this paper reviews water-poverty interfaces and suggests ways of contributing to poverty alleviation through water sector interventions. The unequal distribution of the available water within communities and among various water users in the same country and across countries is discussed as a key issue in this context. The paper examines the causes of poverty with particular reference to the pattern of access to water supply as well as to water for various economic activities. It also considers water-related disasters such as flood, cyclone and riverbank erosion and their adverse human and natural consequences. Water deprivation is seen as both a state and a process -the former being the situation prevailing at a particular point of time and the later implying how that s tate has been reached and how may it evolve in future. The paper argues that the water crisis is primarily one of management, given the persisting traditional- sectorally focused and fragmented- approach. The appropriate alternative, it is argued, is integrated water resource management (IWRM), which is holistic in approach and focuses on the various uses of water and different categories of its users. It suggests ways of moving forward in terms of improved and participatory water development and management, which can contribute significantly to poverty alleviation. The second part of the paper highlights the National Water Policy of Bangladesh as a case study. The policy, adopted in 1999, broadly encompasses the various elements of IWRM. It enunciates principles and directions for water planning and utilization towards fulfilling the national goals of economic development, poverty alleviation, food security, public health and safety, decent standard of living of the people and protection of the natural envi ronment. The policy has adopted a holistic approach and provided guidelines for participatory water management. The paper points out that a Bangladesh National Water Management Plan has been drafted within the framework of the National Water Policy with a view to improving water development and management so as to address human, economic and environmental needs of water, with special emphasis on the water needs of the poorer segments of society.


MANAGING THE SENEGAL RIVER: NATIONAL AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT DILEMMA (pp. 279-293)

Virpi Lahtela, Helsinki University of Technology, Water Resources Laboratory, Finland

E-mail: vlahtela@cc.hut.fi

Abstract: The Senegal River is located in West Africa in the Sudano-Sahelian zone. The river has faced various development schemes since the early 1970s, which have not brought the desired results. Many problems stem from the overall lack of economic and human development and weak institutional settings. Droughts and ethnic complexities add to the problem. The environment and local population have continuously been exposed to negative changes. The river developers face a difficult task when choosing the development options for the future. Taking into account all the stakeholders and variables, and adding to these the external demographic and natural challenges, the development actions require weighing complex multiform and interconnected issues. An objective analysis of the development plans is needed in order to avoid repeating past mistakes and to acquire harmonious end results.


SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE TONLE SAP REGION, CAMBODIA: BUILDING LINKS AND CAPACITY FOR TARGETED POVERTY ALLEVIATION (pp. 295-310)

Olli Varis and Marko Keskinen, Helsinki University of Technology, Water Resources Laboratory, Finland

E-mails: olli.varis@hut.fi, marko.keskinen@hut.fi

Abstract: Cambodia is recovering from three decades of violence. The Tonle Sap region is the poorest part of this deprived country. Its economy now suffers from substantial informal and destructive activities. A socio-economic analysis of the region -a part of the Mekong River Commission’s Water Utilization Programme, which serves the lower Mekong’s Basin Development Plan (BDP)- is documented. Besides the multifaceted collection and analysis of data and information from participatory fieldwork, various databases, mathematical models, expert interviews and so forth, a crucial part of the work is to build up and reinforce links between the Mekong River Commission, ministries, provincial authorities, non-governmental organizations, universities and ultimately local communities, and thereby root the BDP into the emerging civil society. Otherwise, the BDP is at high risk of sharing the fate of its predecessors on the Mekong as well as in many other parts of the world. This fate has too often been a failure of the plan, however integrated it has attempted to be.


WATER PRICING: ISSUES AND OPTIONS IN TURKEY (pp. 311-330)

Olcay Ünver and Rajiv K. Gupta, South-eastern Anatolia Project Regional Development Administration, Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry, Turkey

E-mails: unver@gap.gov.tr, drrajivgupta62@hotmail.com

Abstract: Water pricing occupies a central place in water sector reforms. The paper discusses its global importance and analyses the existing institutions and legal frameworks for irrigation water pricing in Turkey. In view of the gradually expanding large irrigation infrastructure in the South-eastern Anatolia Project region of Turkey, ¡t makes a case for the adoption of full organization and management cost recovery for irrigation water supplies and the establishment of a volumetric system of billing in place of the present crop and area system.


BOOK REVIEW
The Nile Basin: National Determinants of Collective Action
, John Waterbury, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2000

CONFERENCE REPORT
Workshop on Integrated Water Resources Management for South and Southeast Asia
, Bangkok, Thailand, 2–4 December 2002

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