THE ROLE OF DAMS IN DEVELOPMENT (pp. 9-24)
Abstract: Growing population and rising levels of economic activities increase human demand for water and related services. In the past large dams have often been seen as an effective way of meeting water and energy needs. However, a global review recently carried out by World Commission on Dams has emphasized the wide range of problems associated with dams, making it more difficult to finance large dams. This paper deals with the role of dams in development. The need for dams, the purpose of large-dam building, major benefits and social and environmental considerations are dealt with. As a case study, the contribution of dams to Turkey’s economy is described.
WATER AND ENERGY LINKAGES FOR GROUNDWATER EXPLOITATION: A CASE STUDY OF GUJARAT STATE, INDIA (pp. 25-45)
Abstract: Water and Energy, two important resources for human development, have inextricable inter-linkages between them. Their complementarity, a blessing otherwise, causes a vicious cycle in a complex situation like the present case study of Gujarat State, India. This paper analyses the supply-demand situation of both sectors for a state that is primarily agrarian but also with a high industrial growth rate. Due to inequitable distribution of surface water, recurrent droughts and an ever-increasing demand trend, groundwater (a major source in the state) has been over-exploited in many parts, leading to ‘water mining’ with worsening water quality. With more than 40% energy consumed for extracting groundwater, this has had serious impact on the energy balance. The paper brings forth the energy requirements to satisfy the water needs and the water requirements for generation of energy. Finally, the feasible options available to meet the crisis, ranging from the development of mega projects like Sardar Sarovar and Kalpasar to micro water harvesting structures, water pricing, consumer training etc., are reviewed.
WATER-ENERGY NEXUS IN RESOURCE-POOR ECONOMIES: THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE (pp. 47-58)
Abstract: The paper examines the nature of water-energy interactions at the level of end users in an economy where the demand for both water and energy exceeds the available supplies of these resources. The paper attempts an assessment of the nature of coping strategies adopted by individuals to deal with shortages/uncertainties/unreliability in availability of water and energy per se and in inter-linked activities, and to provide indicative estimates of the cost of the prevailing supply scenario. The paper also examines the nature of policy interventions that could help in moving towards bridging the gap between the demand and supply of water and energy, especially in inter-linked activities. The scope of the paper is confined to the agricultural/irrigation and urban water supply sectors. Attempts at bridging the gap between demand and supply of both the resources call for both short-run and long-run solutions. A favourable policy environment, improved management of utilities, better organization and methods of existing infrastructure, metering of consumption, charging of rational tariffs for these services, larger investments in the creation of new capacities and a more active role of the private sector could to a large extent help in narrowing the gap and making the water and energy sectors more sustainable in the long run.
NEED TO STRENGTHEN THE BRIDGE BETWEEN THE WATER AND ENERGY PROFESSIONALS: AN EXAMPLE FROM SRI LANKA (pp. 59-71)
E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Sri Lanka, a developing island in the Indian Ocean, is attempting to effectively utilize the available natural resources. Though the Upper Kotmale Hydropower Project planned by energy authorities was submitted for approval as the best option, the project was to affect several scenic waterfalls. After a critical evaluation of various project alternatives, water and other professionals indicated that an option which claimed to have almost no effect on waterfalls would probably be the best option. This gave rise to a conflicting situation that resulted in a delay in project implementation. The work presented is a discussion of the evaluation of environmental impact assessment, highlighting the need to bridge the gap between energy, water and other professionals.
WATER, ENERGY, AND ENVIRONMENT NEXUS: THE CALIFORNIA EXPERIENCE (pp. 73-85)
Abstract: The paper addresses the local and inter-state connections between water, energy and the environment. Using California and the Western USA as a case study, the report highlights the difficulties of balancing the needs of diverse stakeholders and protecting valuable resources while providing reliable and safe supplies of both water and energy to agricultural, industrial, and residential customers. The investigation of these complex relationships is necessary to inform local and national policy decisions regarding the management of water, energy and the environment.
WATER AND ENERGY RELATIONS IN LITHUANIA (pp. 87-98)
Abstract: Water and energy links have changed considerably over the course of centuries. Since ancient times water has been used in Lithuania for domestic needs (preparing meals, thirst slaking, hygienic necessities) and in agriculture for watering plants, etc. When handicrafts and industries began to develop, water power was used for working purposes: to turn the wheels of mills, sawmills’ mechanisms, wool-carding workshop equipment and later to generate electricity. The first small hydropower plant started working in 1900. In 1935 there were 96 small hydropower plants or mixed hydrostations from 309 electricity-producing ones. In the Soviet period (1940-90) water and energy links quickly changed and their development on a large scale depended on the general needs of the Soviet empire. An attempt is made in the paper to discuss briefly the development of water and energy relations in the fields of electricity production, dam quality, water use and wastewater treatment, polder systems and irrigation during last decade in Lithuania.
PROBLEM SOLVING BY BRIDGING BETWEEN DIVERS DISCIPLINES AND INDUSTRY SECTORS (pp. 99-110)
Abstract: The necessary knowledge exists to solve many water resource problems. The barriers to their solution are more social and political than technical. Fragments of the necessary knowledge may exist within two or more specialist disciplines but the specialists do not listen to each other, so there is a lack of synthesis of research findings into practicable courses of action. Even when technical solutions are known they may not be communicated effectively either to decision makers or to the voting public and the media, who can exert pressure for solutions to be implemented. This paper proposes some initiatives to improve bridge building between the diverse specialist research disciplines and stakeholders and briefly describes some cases where water-related problems have been addressed by synthesizing knowledge from diverse fields. It is suggested that individuals and organizations with this ability to synthesize, which is different from the ability to focus on one specialist topic, are at least as useful as specialists and should be encouraged and given more say in policy making.
NINE MONTHS AFTER THE LAUNCH OF THE WORLD COMMISSION ON DAMS REPORT (pp. 111-126)
Abstract: The World Commission on Dams (WCD) was established in 1998 in response to the increasing controversies over dam projects. Its report, published in November 2000, concluded that dams have delivered many benefits, but in too many cases the price paid to secure those benefits was unnecessarily high and adverse impacts could have been avoided. In recommending a way forward, the WCD presented a new framework for decision making based on a recognition of rights and an assessment of risks. The diverse reactions to the findings and recommendations of the report are outlined in the paper and some of the follow-up activities by government agencies, international organizations and the private sector described. The seven strategic priorities articulated in the WCD’s report have received a considerable degree of support and provide a foundation for local processes to follow. A case is made for inclusive, multi-stakeholder processes at national and project level to find a way forward beyond conflicts.
A CRITICAL LOOK AT THE REPORT OF THE WORLD COMMISION ON DAMS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DEBATE ON LARGE DAMS ON THE HIMALAYAN RIVERS (pp. 127-145)
Abstract: In the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin in south Asia, the Himalayan rivers offer a large number of sites suitable for the construction of storage dams to collect part of their very large monsoon run-off and generate a good amount of hydropower. A series of large dams proposed by the governments are facing strong opposition on social and environmental grounds. Additional water and hydropower supplies are needed badly to ensure economic development in this basin, where poverty is a widespread problem. The Report of the World Commission on Dams (WCD) has been analysed in this paper to explore how much it can provide a new framework for decision making for these dams. It has been found that there are some important technical gaps in the WCD report, as a result of which it can not help in answering some crucial technical questions raised by the debate on dams on the Himalayan rivers of the GBM basin.
ROLE OF DAMS IN IRRIGATION, DRAINAGE AND FLOOD CONTROL (pp. 147-162)
Abstract: The International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) is a scientific and technical, non-governmental international organization. The objectives of ICID are to stimulate and promote the development and application of irrigation, drainage, flood control, river training and environmental management in all their technical, economic, social and environmental aspects, as well as the needed research leading to the use of modern techniques. During the past years intensive discussions have been going on at a global scale regarding the future of dams. These discussions have mainly been initiated due to environmental concerns and resettlement problems related to the development of new reservoirs. In light of these discussions ICID was asked to clarify its position. Since then a position paper on the ‘Role of dams for irrigation, drainage and flood control’ has been prepared which was almost unanimously approved by ICID’s national committees. In this paper the main issues and findings as described in the position paper are presented. The future steps ICID is planning to take in order to contribute to the finding of sustainable solutions and improvements in decision-making processes on dams are also illustrated.
ROLE OF LARGE DAMS IN THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF MEXICO (pp. 163-177)
Abstract: In Mexico, 473 km3 of water is renewed annually, of which 198.4 km3 is abstracted by the productive sectors and for domestic purposes. Such figures, however, give a false sense of water abundance, because its spatial and temporal distribution is not homogenous. In order to cope with this mismatch, numerous water-retaining structures have been constructed. Certainly, dams have been a key element to balance the spatial and the temporal variations in the water availability, and they have played a crucial role in the socio-economic development of Mexico. However, the benefits could be more if water management practices were more efficient, equitable and modern. This paper focuses specifically on dam development in Mexico, and it points out that, unquestionably, large dams have had direct, negative impacts. However, it should be noted that many of those negative impacts are the results of inefficient planning, inadequate expertise, and improper management. Dams, like any other major infrastructures, have economic, environmental and social benefits and costs. Accordingly, the dams must be properly planned, built and managed with the best scientific and technical knowledge available. The real question for Mexico is not whether dams should be constructed or not, but rather how should the dams be planned and managed so that the economic, social and environmental benefits to the society as a whole can be maximized and the costs could be minimized.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF DAMS CONSTRUCTED IN IRAN (pp. 179-182)
Abstract: Construction of dams is essential for an arid country like Iran so water can be stored to assure the availability of a reliable supply to satisfy domestic, industrial and agricultural requirements, control floods and generate hydroelectricity. Dams are thus essential for the country’s socio-economic development. While dams have contributed to very significant benefits, their construction has also resulted in many negative environmental impacts. Only these negatives impacts are analysed in this paper. Assessments and understanding of these negative impacts will contribute to more efficient water management practices in the future.
SOCIAL CHANGE AND WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT (pp. 183-195)
Abstract: In the old approach, disregard for civil rights of project-affected people during the planning, construction and operation phase of large dam projects, which are typically built in remote areas rather than in urban areas, can result in confrontation, conflicts and resistance movements that can be avoided or minimized if a public participatory approach is adopted. In the new approach, to ensure broad acceptance of projects or system development alternatives, it is important to present and discuss as early in the planning stage as possible all the pros and cons of competing scenarios with interested parties, including the persons directly affected by the project and non-governmental organizations, taking into account technical, economic, financial, environment, social, institutional, political and risk factors. It is the purpose of the paper to describe this process of consensus seeking in greater detail on the basis of the experience gathered on two water resources development projects, the Itaparica Hydropower Scheme and the Castanhao multipurpose scheme, situated in the north-east of Brazil.
PEOPLE VERSUS POWER: THE GEOPOLITICS OF KAPTAI DAM IN BANGLADESH (pp. 197-208)
Contact: I.M. Faisal, e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: This paper examines the impacts of the Kaptai dam, in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh, on the tribal communities of that area. Kaptai dam is the only hydropower source in Bangladesh, with an installed capacity of 230 MW; about 5% of the electricity consumed in the country is produced there. When the dam was built in 1962, some 100 000 people were displaced and few of them received adequate compensation. Recently, the Power Development Board (PDB) of Bangladesh has announced a plan to install two new 50 MW units that will bring the capacity of the dam to 330 MW. This plan will cause the reservoir water level to rise and may take away about 7500 ha of the fringe land, which the tribal people use for rice cultivation during the April-August period each year. As before, the PDB has not discussed this plan with the potentially affected tribal groups, who are concerned about losing the fringe land and an important source of income. The paper discusses the original displacement issue and this recent development in the light of the geopolitical history of this region. It attempts to present an objective analysis of these issues and views held by various concerned parties. It then proposes a scheme for managing the Kaptai reservoir based on a participatory approach that will ensure both economic efficiency and social equity.
DAM, ENVIRONMENT AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: CASE STUDY OF THE LOGONE FLOODPLAIN IN NORTHERN CAMEROON (pp. 209-219)
aGeomatics Canada, Mapping Services Branch, Ottawa, Canada; bCentre d’Études de l’Environment et du Dévelopment au Cameroun, Maroua, Cameroon; cIRGM, Centre de Recherches Hydrologiques, Cameroon
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Abstract: The purpose of this paper is a study of environmental change in the Logone floodplain in Northern Cameroon following the construction in the 1970s of a dam for a rice irrigation project. This unique ecosystem, designated as a biosphere reserve for supporting an impressive wildlife population, depends on the annual overflowing of the lowland. Several communities living in the plain rely upon water and natural resources of the floodplain to support recession agriculture, the fisheries, wetland rice and livestock. But both persistently poor rainfalls in the Sahel and the adverse impacts of the dam have devastated the area, forcing a large number of people to leave. This paper gives the scope of this situation based on geospatial information and field investigation, and also early results of the floodplain rehabilitation programme conducted since 1994 under supervision of the World Wildlife Fund. In addition to demonstrating the potential of geomatics technology in environmental hazard assessment, this case study highlights the complexity of water-related issues in areas of conflicting interests. Despite significant improvements achieved by the rehabilitation programme, there is still much work to complete for the area to recover its former biodiversity.
The 11th Stockholm Water Symposium—Achieving Water Security: Time to Move from Rhetoric to Action, Stockholm, Sweden, 13–16 August 2001
International Conference on Freshwater, Bonn, Germany, 3–7 December 2001
Classic Papers in Natural Resource Economics, edited by Chennat Gopalakrishnan Basingstoke, Macmillan, 2000 and New York, St Martin’s Press, 2000
Investing in Water Quality: Measuring Benets, Costs and Risks, Clifford S. Russell, William J. Vaughan, Christopher D. Clark, Diego J. Rodriguez and Arthur H. Darling, Washington, DC, Inter-American Development Bank, 2001