EVALUATION OF ACTUAL IMPACTS OF THE ATATÜRK DAM (pp. 453-464)
Abstract: The primary objective of this paper is to analyse the extent and magnitude of the actual social, economic and environmental impacts of the Atatürk Dam in Southeast Anatolia, Turkey, on the region some eight years after its construction was completed. The direct impacts, both positive and negative, due to the construction of the Atatürk Dam on the people living in the two provinces affected directly, Adiyaman and Sanliurfa, as well as on the region as a whole, are reviewed. The emphasis of this analysis was on economic, social and environmental issues, both direct and indirect, over the short to medium term, which could be objectively estimated and evaluated with reasonable accuracy.
WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT AND ISLAMIC WATER MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES: A CASE STUDY (pp. 465-473)
Abstract: Most of Saudi Arabia is arid and water resources are limited; it has experienced extensive and rapid developments in industrial, agricultural, domestic and construction sectors during the last two decades. Saudi Arabia follows the sacred principles of the Islamic law ‘Shari’a’, whereby water is considered the common entitlement of all people, and the main component of the sustainability of the nation’s life and security. To protect the community of interest which constitutes the traditional basis of Muslim customary water law, the government has control over water resources development, management and planning for the benet of the whole community. The traditional methods for satisfying the limited water demand in the past have been modied to meet the drastic rise in water demand. Large desalination plants on the Gulf and Red Sea coasts have been constructed to produce sweet drinking water, and thousands of deep and shallow wells have been drilled with government support for agricultural purposes. Specialized water ofces for water production, distribution and treatment have been established. Legislation and laws have been developed to organize water-management issues. To protect the interests of the community and its natural resources, several measures were introduced to reduce national water demand and to augment the available water resources. Support for wheat cultivation was reduced to about 25% of the previous level to mimimize irrigation water use. Modern irrigation techniques have been practised to reduce water losses and demand. New water pricing policies, leakage detection and control and promotion of public awareness of water conservation have been practised, signicantly during the last decade. The Council of Muslim Leading Scholars gave a pioneering example of the wisdom of Islam by issuing a special Fatwa to regulate the reuse of treated efuents for different purposes. This has promoted wastewater recycling by the public. The Islamic water management principles used in Saudi Arabia can be taken as a model to improve water demand management in other countries.
THE 1997 UN CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF NON-NAVIGATIONAL USES OF INTERNATIONAL WATERCOURSES: ITS STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES FROM A WATER MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE AND THE NEED FOR NEW WORKABLE GUIDELINES (pp. 475-495)
Abstract: The development of international water law applicable to the use of waters in transboundary rivers has lasted most of the twentieth century. During this time legal ideas have evolved substantially but widespread agreement has been difcult to obtain since the establishment of the Helsinki Rules in 1966. Following further work by the International Law Commission a framework convention was devised by the UN, which was accepted by the General Assembly in 1997. This convention has the advantage of being broad in concept and encompassing all aspects associated with water use. However, at the same time this is a serious weakness which will limit its utility as a working document by permitting the riparian states in dispute to engage in almost endless discussion over all the factors which might be considered. To help focus the debate this paper suggests two ‘rules’ that can be used initially to allocate actual water amounts in the basin of a transboundary river. From this position a more detailed water allocation policy can follow.
THE EVOLUTION OF TAIWANESE IRRIGATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE (pp. 497-510)
a,cIWMI and Cornell University; bTaiwan Agricultural Engineering Center
Abstract: In the 1960s and 1970s, Taiwan’s irrigation sector was organized with effective Irrigation Associations characterized by user control, with user payment for operation and maintenance and for a substantial portion of system improvement. At the present time user participation has declined substantially, there is no user fee, and the government exercises much greater control. This study suggests that, as Taiwan developed, the widening differential between rural and urban incomes, the small contribution of agriculture to gross domestic product, and the smaller fraction of labour force in agriculture provided the conditions for the decline in user participation.
SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL OUTCOMES FROM WATER-RELATED ENERGY PROJECTS (pp. 511-524)
Abstract: This paper examines how two of the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms—the clean development mechanism (CDM) and emissions trading—have been applied to two water-related renewable power-generation projects. Traditional concerns related to hydropower developments are examined and discussed in the light of assessments carried out for a SMEC International promoted hydropower project in Nepal, which intends to sell power to India. SMEC International is promoting the idea of viewing the hydropower development under the CDM to the Nepalese and Indian governments, so that potential emission credits generated can be of mutual benet to all three parties. SMEC International has been assisting the Government of Gujarat, India, in assessing various environmental issues related to the bold and imaginative proposal KALPASAR, which intends to dam a gulf and harness the high tidal variations to generate nearly 5000 MW of renewable power. The Government of Gujarat is proposing to seek national/international private sector involvement, thereby providing opportunities for developed country commercial entities to invest in a large-scale renewable energy project which can be considered under CDM, enabling emission credits generated to be of mutual benet to relevant parties.
GLOBAL WATER SHORTAGES AND THE CHALLENGE FACING MEXICO (pp. 525-542)
aIWMI, Colombo, Sri Lanka; b1814 Kilbourne Pl NW, Washington, USA
Abstract: Numerous countries are facing a severe water shortage for food production, drinking water and industry, with profound impacts on the world’s poor and the potential for global conicts. This article traces the past 30 years’ trends in irrigation and water productivity and projects global water supply and demand for the next 30 years, including estimates for Mexico. Options to address water shortages are discussed, including developing additional water resources, improving the management and productivity of already developed water resources and increasing food imports. In the short run, problems associated with water scarcity in many regions will become more severe. But with appropriate policies and institutions, the word’s water resources can be managed to meet the needs of a much larger population.
ANALYSIS OF FRESHWATER CONSUMPTION PATTERN IN KUWAIT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER MANAGEMENT (pp. 543-561)
Abstract: The pattern of freshwater consumption in Kuwait has been studied. The increase in population, introduction of piped water to most of the residential areas of Kuwait, and the development of new residential areas appear to be responsible for the rapid rise in consumption over the period 1970–98. The annual consumption of freshwater has increased from a little over 6600 million imperial gallons ( > 30 million m3) in 1970 to near 78 500 million imperial gallons ( > 357 million m3) in 1998. The average per capita water consumption has increased from 25.3 IG/d (113 l/d) in 1970 to 104.1 IG/d (464 l/d) in 1998. This rather high consumption rate, combined with the scarcity of water in arid Kuwait, brings.
STUDY FOR THE EF.CIENT PLANNING, CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN INDIA (pp. 563-570)
aWater Resources Engineer, India; bProfessor, Ambazari Nagpur (MS), India
Abstract: Modern management skills in water resources development are surprisingly very low in India. To understand the most promising and efcient approach for the future, data gathering through a questionnaire approach is adopted. The responses cover the opinion of very senior-level working and retired engineers and consultants from government as well as non government organizations. The responses are analysed and abstracted to give an overall opinion on the topic.
TOWARDS A NEW WATER MANAGEMENT PRACTICE: EXPERIENCES AND PROPOSALS FROM GUANAJUATO STATE FOR A PARTICIPATORY AND DECENTRALIZED WATER MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE IN MEXICO (pp. 571-588)
Abstract: Per-capita water availability is relatively high in Mexico (about 5000 m3 per year). Nevertheless, water demand is concentrated in some critical zones, where scarcity and pollution are causing growing conicts between water users and authorities. The Lerma-Chapala basin is one of those critical regions. The recent demands to preserve Chapala lake have added an explosive ingredient to the historical importance of its mining and agricultural production, its industrial and commercial development and its relevance as a communications link due to its location in the geographical centre of Mexico. In Guanajuato state, located right in the middle of the basin, water availability per capita does not even reach 1000 m3 per year, with the resulting pressure coming from water users in dispute over a resource that is becoming each day more scarce, polluted and over-exploited. For this reason the state government implemented a programme oriented to the building of a participatory management structure, together with the consolidation of the technical, managerial, nancial and social capacity of local organizations, based on a new paradigm of real decentralization, to which government brings the necessary support, in a subsidiary form, for the social participation structures to become the central actors in the achievement of a sustainable method of using water. Cultural change is the basis of this effort. This vision of water management has implied leaving behind the established one, in which decentralization programmes are constrained to the transfer of predened programmes and their nancial resources, according to rules and supervisory bodies coordinated from Mexico City.
WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT FOR LOWER DONG NAI RIVER BASIN, VIETNAM: APPLICATION OF AN INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL (pp. 589-613)
Abstract: An integrated water management model has been proposed to investigate the water resources planning and management problem for a tidal basin having a complex reservoir–river network system. The model addresses an optimal operating policy for the interlinked reservoir system, hydropower plant and water-treatment facilities as well as the irrigation systems that utilize both surface water and groundwater to obtain the optimum benet from the water supply, agriculture and hydropower production. The integrated water-management model is, essentially, a linkage between the optimization model and the hydrodynamic ow and transport model. A modied constraint approach is suggested to incorporate the implicit nonlinear salinity constraints in the optimization model. The present model has been applied to the Lower Dong Nai River Basin, and two scenarios for water resources planning and management have been analysed. The results showed that the energy production of Tri An hydropower plant will reduce signicantly as the water supply has to meet the increase in water demands for irrigation and public use during the low-ow period by the year 2010. Consequently, the construction of Phuoc Hoa Reservoir and its diversion channel to Dau Tieng Reservoir will improve the effectiveness of this system’s operation. With this additional system component implementation, the power production requirement could be maintained. Also the total water requirement up to the year 2010 is satised, and the area of cultivation could be increased for agricultural development.
WATER RESOURCES IN LEBANON: CHARACTERIZATION, WATER BALANCE AND CONSTRAINTS (pp. 615-638)
aFaculty of Engineering and Architecture, American University of Beirut, Lebanon; bDepartment of Public Policy, Darwin College, University of Kent at Canterbury, UK
Abstract: Worldwide water resources are not uniformly distributed and are generally scarce in arid and semiarid zones such as the Middle East. Lebanon, which is located along the Mediterranean shores of the Middle East, remains blessed with relatively more water in comparison with its neighbouring countries. This paper examines increased pressure on Lebanon’s water resources requiring the formulation and implementation of a comprehensive management plan to meet future water demands. Water resources are described with the corresponding present and future water balance, environmental stresses, and constraints facing the water sector in Lebanon.
MODELLING WATER ALLOCATION BETWEEN A WETLAND AND IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE IN THE GEDIZ BASIN, TURKEY (pp. 639-650)
aWageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands; bInternational Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Abstract: The Kus Cenneti is a wetland in the Gediz River Delta in Turkey. Part of it needs a large supply of low saline water to ensure the survival of endangered bird species. Any increase must be supplied at the expense of the upstream irrigated agriculture. The effects of basin water reallocation on water availability and crop productivity were evaluated using a semi-distributed hydrological model (SLURP). It was found that, during the irrigation season, increased wetland water demand causes increased loss in yield to irrigated agriculture and, outside this period, the water supply is limited by the Gediz River minimum base flow.
CONFICT AND COOPERATION ON INTERNATIONAL RIVERS: THE CASE OF THE COLORADO RIVER ON THE US–MEXICO BORDER (pp. 651-660)
aInternational Boundary and Water Commission, United States Section, USA; bComisión Internacional de Límites y Aguas, Sección Mexicana, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico
Abstract: This paper describes the work of the International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico (IBWC), to nd cooperative solutions to issues pertaining to the Colorado River along the US–Mexico border. Since 1944, the IBWC has worked to resolve issues related to the distribution of the waters of the Colorado River between the United States and Mexico; salinity of waters delivered to Mexico; conveyance capacity of the Colorado River; and the conditions of the Colorado River Delta. The IBWC has emphasized binational cooperation to explore both short-term and long-term solutions to these issues.
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS TO MAINTAIN AND ENHANCE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN THE NILE RIVER DELTA (pp. 661-675)
Abstract: Agricultural productivity has declined in some portions of the Nile River Delta, due to the sustained reuse of saline drainage water in some areas and the over-application of irrigation water in others. Recent changes in agricultural policies and the Government of Egypt’s land reclamation plans have increased the demand for Nile River water in Egypt. Efforts to supply the land reclamation projects will reduce the volume of Nile River water available to farmers in the Delta, where soil and water quality may be degraded further unless current policies regarding irrigation and drainage are modied. This paper examines the economic dimensions of farm-level decisions in respect of cropping patterns and irrigation water volumes, to identify policies that will maintain and enhance productivity in the Nile Delta. Recommendations include volumetric water pricing, where feasible, and crop-specic land assessments elsewhere. Successful policy efforts would enable the Ministry of Public Works and Water Resources to achieve its water supply and drainage goals more effectively, and to improve the quality of irrigation water delivered in the Delta.
EVALUATION OF WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS IN PHNOM PENH CITY: A REVIEW OF THE PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS (pp. 677-689)
aRoyal Phnom Penh University, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; bEnvironmental Engineering Program, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
Abstract: Phnom Penh City, the capital of Cambodia, is facing the problem of inadequate quantity and poor quality of water. The continuous increase in urban population and the need for repair and maintenance of old and outdated structures and distribution networks will increase the city’s water demand almost 2.5 times by the year 2025. Owing to lack of technical and nancial resources, achieving this target is doubtful by government effort alone. This study explores the present situation and possible improvements based on existing facilities of the Phnom Penh water supply system.
WORKING TOWARD SUSTAINABLE WATER AND WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE US–MEXICO BORDER REGION: A PERSPECTIVE ON BECC AND NADBANK (pp. 691-708)
aCenter for US–Mexican Studies, University of California, San Diego, USA; bStanford University, Stanford, USA
Abstract: In 1994, the US and Mexican governments created the Border Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC) and the North American Development Bank (NADBank) to promote water and wastewater projects in the US–Mexico border region. Development assistance by these organizations is innovative because of its focus on locally controlled, debt-nanced and user-fee-supported projects developed with public participation. Between 1994 and 2000, BECC and NADBank helped develop border infrastructure via BECC’s project certication efforts and NADBank’s nancing packages. Other aid included BECC’s technical assistance for project development and NADBank’s capacity-strengthening for utilities.
Workshop on Innovative Approaches for Water Management, Mexico City, 29–30 October 1999
Workshop on Water Conservation, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, 3–5 April 2000