COST-EFFECTIVE PRIVATE DAM SAFETY ASSURANCE POLICY AND SPILLWAY DESIGN/REVIEW (pp. 261-276)
Abstract: Owner-obligationexists under common law to take reasonable care of dams according to current prevailing standards. However, this obligation may not be met in places where there is an absence of private dam safety assurance policy, which creates the possibility of placing the public at risk. To explore the potential seriousne ss of this problem, a case study has been conducted in the policy-absent state of South Australia where 11 hazardous private reservoirs have been investigated for spillway adequacy in line with state-of-the-art practice. Common high leve ls of deficiency have been discove red. Extended flood studies of hypotheticaldams placed on the same catchments, bearing a wide range of spillway capacities and reservoir conditions, have then been conducted. Appropriate analysis has led to the de rivation of regionalized relationships based on simple hydrological/hydraulicvariables, for predicting reservoir flood capability as either 1/AEP or %PMF. The relationships have been utilized to deve lop a simple and cost-effective flood capability design/review procedure for reservoirs on small catchments which is compatible with any design flood standards. The paper also provide s guide lines and criteria, based on international expe rience and practice, for gove rnment to readily explore an “appropriate” private dam safety assurance policy for any jurisdiction. The guide lines, incorporating the cost-effective flood capability de sign/review procedure , aim to minimize review costs to private owne rs and ensure an acceptable level of private dam safe ty management.
TOWARDS THE SUSTAINABLE USE OF WATER: A REGIONAL APPROACH FOR BADEN-WUERTTEMBERG, GERMANY (pp. 277-290)
aStatistisches Bundesamt, Germany; bCenter of Technology Assessment in Baden-Wuerttemberg (CTA), Germany
Abstract: Sustainable water management is an essent ial prerequisite for any sustainable development. As water is a regional resource, concepts for sustainable water management can only be developed at a regional level. Therefore the CTA carried out a regional study to assess the water resources in the state of Baden-Wuerttembergand to findnd out whe ther water management in Baden-Wuerttemberg can be regarded as sustainable. Whereas water quantity is not a major problem in Baden-Wuerttemberg,the question of water quality demands our full attention. The main threats to water quality are agriculture, airborne depositions and inadequate wastewater management. In addition, all decisions concerning water management have to be conside red under energy aspects. Water, a renewable resource, should not be substituted by non-renewable resources such as fossil fuel.
THE NEW APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-INDUCED RESETTLEMENT IN TURKEY (pp. 291-300)
Abstract: Resettlement takes place when major construction projects, which are a most important element of development force people who have lived in a region for a long time to leave the ir homes and any other immovable properties, their place in society, economic and agricultural activities, relationships and opportunities, to live in other places. It is necessary to create satisfactory policies and procedure s in order to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects of relocation and resettlement both on people and on the national economy. The se effects are not only economic, but social, cultural, psychological and environmental as well. For this reason, the approach to resettlement and rehabilitation concepts should deal with the se issues in an integrated manner. To ensure that resettlement takes place in a well-planned way, and to minimize its adve rse e ffects, it is ne cessary for people, NGOs and institutions who run the country and make decisions to define the ir goals, policies and strategies for resettlement and rehabilitation. In particular, one of the problems observed by experts who have worldwide expe rience has been the inadequacy and inconsistency of laws arranging resettlement procedures in different countries.
THE CHANGING FACE OF WATER INFRASTRUCTURE FINANCING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (pp. 301-308)
Abstract: For decades the financing of water-related infrastructure was a sleepy backwater: the financing of hydro-powerplants, water supply and irrigation systems all depended heavily on government financing. All infrastructure financing for-telecommunications, power, transport and water accounts for about one -half of all government spending and about 20% of all investment in developing countries. The results are now broadly perceived as unsatisfactory: these put a heavy strain on public finance; there is too little investment; investments are not efficient; performance of the investments is unsatisfactory both in terms of outputs and in terms of impact on the environment; and the poor often do not benefit from the se investments. In recent years, the sweeping changes affecting most economies in the world-changing roles of government, increasing involvement of the private sector, globalization-havehad a profound effect on how infrastructure is provided and financed. During the 1990s, while official development assistance actually declined slightly in real terms, private inve stment increased from about half of official assistance to about five times the volume of official assistance. Some 15% of infrastructure investment in developing countries now comes from the private sector. This paper provides an overview of the changing face of infrastructure financing in developing countries. A companion paper to be published in this journal examines the situation in water-related infrastructure in greater detail.
SEAWATER PRETREATMENT BY MICROFILTRATION: AN ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT (pp. 323-331)
aTechno-Economics Division; bWater Resources Division, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait
Abstract: This paper conducts cost and economic analyses of the microfiltration system (MFS) seawater pretreatment technique for reverse osmosis (RO) application. The study is based on operational results from an RO plant in Kuwait and, for the sake of comparability, the analysis follows the same approach as the earlier studies that evaluated the cost-effectiveness of alternative techniques. The analysis shows that the MFS is as cost-effective as the beachwell system, which gives substantial cost savings compared with the conventional surface system.
MANAGING GROUNDWATER IN HARD-ROCK AREAS THROUGH AGRO-WELL DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT (pp. 333-348)
aFaculty of Engineering Technology, The Open University, Nawala, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka; bWorld Bank, Colombo Office [formerly with IIMI]; cInternational Irrigation Management Institute (IIMI), Battar amulla, Sri Lanka
Abstract: Water shortage in the dry season is a major problem facing agriculture in the dry and intermediate zones of Sri Lanka. Large diameter wells (agro-wells) have been introduced to use the groundwater as a supplement to rainfall. The underlying crystalline hard-rock formations have very low storage and transmissivity, which limit the groundwater resource. The haphazard development of agro-wells may seriously threaten sustainable groundwater use in the future. Based on field studies and a groundwater hydrological model, this paper explains a methodology for de termining the dimensions of agro-wells that limit a farmer to abstracting no more than the volume of water recharged under his/her land . This methodology can be used to regulate groundwater in hard-rock aquifers by identifying the safe volume of water that can be abstracted, establishing the optimum well dimensions for constructing a new well, and matching crop-water requirements to the abstractable volume of water. Farmers themselves can regulate groundwater resources to limit exploitation to equal the ir entitlement.
A STRATEGY FOR CONTROLLING GROUNDWATER DEPLETION IN THE SA’DAH PLAIN, YEMEN (pp. 349-365)
Abstract: Over-exploitation of the groundwater resources is the major problem leading to groundwater depletion in the Sa’dah Plain, one of the major semi-arid highland basins of Yemen. Groundwater-irrigatedagriculture is the chief economic activity in the Plain. Consequently, depletion places socioeconomic developmentin jeopardy. Owing to the lack of institutional arrangements and management instruments, government intervention is not likely to alleviate the crisis. One non-governmental approach that takes advantage of the existing local sociopolitical structure and customary law would be to adopt an annual abstraction quota. Approaching the crisis at a grass-roots level and relying on the conformity of the local citizens with customary law are the main characteristics of this strategy, the optimum objective of which is sustainable utilization of water resources.
THE ECONOMICS OF URBAN WATER DEMAND: THE CASE OF INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL WATER USE IN HAWAII (pp. 367-374)
Abstract: The industrial and commercial establishments of the City and County of Honolulu (CCH) have increased the ir water consumption dramatically in recent years. This study examined water use in the food-processing industry, non-food processing industries, and the commercial sector in relation to price of water and output/sales of the industrial or commercial unit. The generalized least-squares (GLS) procedure was used to estimate the regression equations, although the results of ordinary least-squares (OLS) estimation are also presented. The study results showed sensitivity of water use in relation to price level in the case of the food-processing industry and insensitivity in the non-food processing and commercial establishments. Analogous results were found with respect to water use and number of employees.