Management of International Waters
BETWEEN UNILATERALISM AND COMPREHENSIVE ACCORDS: MODEST STEPS TOWARD COOPERATION IN INTERNATIONAL RIVER BASINS (pp. 279-289)
Abstract: The premise of this article is that basin-wide accords, integrated basin development, and formulae for optimal use of water in international river basins will prove elusive, and the costs of searching for them will be excessive. This holds especially for basins with several riparian states. The article suggests some measures that can be taken within riparian states that simultaneously make good sense in purely domestic terms and that will help prepare the riparians for bi-lateral or multi-lateral negotiating with other riparians.
BETWEEN THE GREAT RIVERS: WATER IN THE HEART OF THE MIDDLE EAST (pp. 291-309)
Abstract: The availability of water in the region between the Nile and the Euphrates Rivers varies widely in space and in time. Therefore, water management must focus on risk minimization, not maximum utilization. Water stress in the region stems from: (1) excessive demand for fresh water over the renewable supply; (2) pollution from growing volumes of waste; and (3) the natural flow of key water resources across (or under) international borders. The three forces interact, so any resolution must deal with all, together. Such resolution depends upon many changes, including reduction of the use of fresh water for irrigation, higher prices for water, charges for wastewater, greater efforts at water conservation, and institutions to promote joint, management of international water bodies, both surface and underground. Water may be the limiting factor for development throughout this region, but it is far cheaper to share water than to fight over it.
WATER AND LAND RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY (pp. 311-332)
Abstract: The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), which was initiated in 1976 as a large-scale and multisectoralregional development project in Turkey, is a combination of 13 projects primarily for hydropower generation and irrigation. The project involves the construction of 22 dams and 19 hydroelectric plants with a total capacity of 7500 M W. At full development 27.3 billion kWhr of hydroelectric energy will be generated annually. GAP will also provide irrigation for 1.7 million ha of land corresponding to one-fifth of irrigable land of Turkey. As an integrated development project relating sectors including hydropower, irrigation, industry, transportation and social infrastructure, the Southeastern Anatolia Project has top priority among national projects of Turkey. In this paper, various aspects of hydropower and irrigation planning and development for the Southeastern Anatolia project will be discussed. Water availability, agricultural and other objectives, physical structures, developmentstrategies and scenarios are examined. Some important aspects of international water use are discussed.
INTERNATIONAL WATER CONFLICT RESOLUTION: LESSONS FROM COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS (pp. 333-365)
Abstract: This paper offers lessons learned for the process of resolving international freshwater conflicts from the combined experience of treaty negotiations, process case studies, and a series of forums on international waters. The first section describes the current state of international water institutions and law, and discusses weaknesses in each structure. The second section describes recent attempts at the resolution of international water disputes as exemplified in 140 transboundary water treaties and 14 process case studies collected on the University of Alabama Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database, and at the three Forums of the International Water Resources Association (IWRA) Committee on International Waters. Lessons learned are then described in the third section for the three stages of negotiation. During the prenegotiation stage, lessons are to be found for involvement in advance of conflict, and indicators suggested both for possible water conflict and for the type and intensity of a pending dispute. During the negotiation stage, common obstacles to successful negotiations are suggested and the lessons of introducing multi-resource linkages to encourage positive sum solutions are offered. For the implementation stage, often ignored parameters are described physical, economic and political-as are aspects unique to water resources that can encourage cooperation.
SUCCESSES AND FAILURES OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN DEALING WITH INTERNATIONAL WATERS (pp. 367-382)
Abstract: Conflict among riparian countries prevents them from making the best use of their shared water resources. A modality is needed in the global community to deal with international water bodies in a much better way. International organizations are expected to serve as a mechanism to mitigate conflicts among riparian countries. However, international organizations have so far achieved very limited success in acting in such a role. An international organization could act flawlessly as a mediator in a transboundary water system only when some critical conditions are met. This paper aims at delineating some prerequisites for international organizationsto be successful in their involvement in an international water system. Four cases where international organizations have either succeeded or failed in dealing with transboundary water issues, were reviewed. It was found that the following critical conditions need to be met for international organizations to succeed in their involvement in international water bodies: (a) willingness of riparian countries to cooperate, (b) involvement of decision makers at the highest level of basin countries, and (c) neutrality as a third party with financial assistance as ‘stick and carrot’.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL WATERS AND THEIR BASINS: IMPLEMENTING THE GEF OPERATIONAL STRATEGY (pp. 383-401)
Abstract: If environmentally sustainable development goals are to be achieved for transboundary water resources, fundamental improvements over sector-by-sector development strategies are needed. This article describes the nature of needed improvements as well as lessons learned for multicountry cooperation in managing transboundary water resources. While global agreements, watercourse or basin organizations, and arbitration have fallen short of addressing conflicting priorities, joint institutional arrangements,such as those utilized by the International Joint Commission (Canada and USA ), provide opportunitiesfor: (1) creating a neutral ground for building trust among nations; (2) levelling the playing field among small and large nations; and (3) arranging joint mechanisms for working together on shared development of basins without relinquishing a country’s sovereignty. The Global Environment Facility is playing a catalytic role in assisting countries in making the transition to comprehensive approaches for addressing transboundary water and land resource issues. The GEF Operational Strategy is described and lessons learned from its first five years are presented with a view to illustrating programmatic opportunities that cooperating nations can utilize for pursuing sustainable development of international waters and their basins.
ECO-POLITICAL DECISION-MAKING AND CONFIDENCE-BUILDING MEASURES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RIVERS (pp. 403-414)
aKochi University of Technology, Tosayamada-choKochi Prefecture, Japan; bInstitute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Abstract: One of the most important resources for socioeconomic developmentin arid and semi-arid countries is water, and its scarcity in the Middle East has been a key factor in war and peace-making. As water shortages occur and full utilization is reached, water policies tend to be framed more and more in zero-sum terms, adding to the probability of discord. The aim of this study is to provide some innovative technological answers to the fundamental questions of how to sustain the water supply without causing diverse effects on the ecosystem both now and for the 21st century. This paper evaluates several non-conventional approaches highlighting the economic and environmental gains of co-generation applications that would have the potential to resolve this persistent problem, and thus contribute towards peace among the water users in the Middle East. Priority of development projects including viability of (1) the strategic use of such resources as brackish water, seawater and reclaimed wastewater, and (2) the transboundary transport of water is preliminarily evaluated by taking into account the four feasibility elements ‘technical’, ‘environment’, ‘economy’ and ‘politics’. Water conservation and management including water pricing scenarios are essential confidence-building measures to manage the water resources in the region. In this circumstance, non-conventional strategic alternatives including desalination and reuse of treated wastewater will become significantly important in water resources development to supply new additional fresh waters in the 21st century.
DIVIDING THE WATERS OF THE RIVER JORDAN: AN ANALYSIS OF THE 1994 ISRAEL-JORDAN PEACE TREATY (pp. 415-424)
Abstract: Following a long period of war-like conditions Israel and Jordan signed a Peace Treaty in October 1994. As part of this treaty the two countries agreed to settle their differences with regard to the claims they had to the waters of the Jordan basin. The result is that Israel is to keep all the waters of the upper Jordan basin, totalling approximately 600 mcm per annum. In the lower part of the basin Jordan is granted a small share of the waters from the mainstream, together with a more sizeable proportion of the flow of the Yarmouk. The volume of water which Jordan will now have access to is considerably less than the water allocations of the Johnston Plan of the 1950s, which was an independent attempt to divide the waters of the River Jordan in an equitable manner. On the other hand Israel’s share is considerably greater. Overall, the treaty seems to be particularly favourable for Israel.
Freshwater Resources in Arid Lands, UNU Global Environmental Forum V, edited by Juha I. Uitto and Jutta Schneider, Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 1997