REGIONAL WATER BALANCE AS A TOOL FOR WATER MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (pp. 5-20)
aSwiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland at College Park, USA; bSwiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries, Duebendorf, Switzerland; cFundación Universitaria de Boyacá, Uniboyaca, Tunja, Colombia; dSwiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland
Abstract: The method of material flux analysis is applied as an instrument for the early recognition of environmental problems in an urban region of developing countries. It is shown that, even with poor data quality and quantity, it is possible to apply the method in Tunja, an urban region in Colombia. With sensitivity analysis monitoring points are developed to attain ‘early recognition’ concerning changes in water quality and quantity in this region. Using the scenario technique it is shown that, owing to the low dilution capacity for sewage in the region, surface water cannot reach the quality of water at a natural state even if technical measures used in industrialized countries are taken.
INTEGRATED ECONOMIC-HYDROLOGIC MODELLING FOR GROUNDWATER BASIN MANAGEMENT (pp. 21-34)
aDepartment of Environmental Studies, North South University, Bangladesh; bDepartment of Agricultural Econimics; cDepartment of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA
Abstract: This paper employs a modified penalty function and conjugate gradientbased nonlinear programming algorithm to solve large integrated groundwater management problems. Discrete kernels are used to incorporatespatial and temporal distribution of the aquifer response due to external stresses. Significant improvements in computational speed and storage requirement are achieved owing to this unique conjugate gradient-discrete kernel combination. Simulations of the ‘socially optimal’ and ‘open access’ groundwaterextraction schemes are presented as case studies of important policy implications.
RESIDENTIAL WATER DEMAND IN A FAST-GROWING METROPOLIS: THE CASE OF HONOLULU, HAWAII (pp. 35-51)
Abstract: Multi-unit housing residents are important consumers of fresh water in the City and County of Honolulu (CCH). This study examined water use in private multi-unit residences as well as Hawaii Housing Authority (HHA) multi-units in relation to variables such as price of water, number of units, income of residents, etc. using monthly water use data of the top 100 Honolulu Board of Water Supply (BWS) water users. The generalized least squares (GLS) procedure was used to estimate the regression equations, although the results of ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation are also presented. Based on the results, inducing lower water use by raising the water price appeared somewhat feasible in the case of private multi-unit residences. Th e same was not, however, true in the case of HHA housing units. A long-term plan to make the water users (who have so far been shielded from bearing the cost directly) pay for water directly (by installing water meters for individual units) has been suggested to promote the prudent use of water.
WATER DIVERSION FROM THE GREAT LAKES: IS A COOPERATIVE APPROACH POSSIBLE? (pp. 53-65)
aNatural Resources and Environmental Research Centre and Department of Economics, University of Haifa, Israel; bDepartment of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, USA
Abstract: The concern about other states diverting water from the Great Lakes has prompted the Great Lakes States and provinces to adopt institutional arrangementsthat have effectively blocked any new diversions. Since the current arrang ementsdo not allow diversions, important opportunities may be lost in the future. This article considers the possibility of ‘economically desirable diversions’ and how the gains should be allocated among the states and provinces to foster cooperation. The study shows that in most cases, new institutional arrang ements will be needed before agreements can be reached. Game theory is used to determine how coalitions may be formed to reach cooperative agreements for diversions. Five different lake diversion games are tried involving Lake Ontario, Lake Superior, Lake Erie, Lake Michigan-Huron, and finally, all the lakes together. Diversions from Lake Ontario may offer the best opportunity for cooperation since there are no interlake effects.
GIS INTEGRATED MODELLING OF A HIMALAYAN LANDSCAPE (pp. 67-78)
aDivision of Land and Water Resources, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; bInstitute of Water Engineering and Water Management, Cracow University of Technology, Poland; cDivision of Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
Abstract: Land-surface modelling is traditionally based on reductionistic cause-effect models developed for the temperate region. Sustainable management of vulnerable and extreme regions demands a new holistic approach relying on first principles and integration of processes and patterns. In this article remotely sensed data and GIS are combined for creating digital data sets of elevation and vegetation over the Himalayan Sutlej river and its tributaries. GIS-coupled models are used for distributed estimates of precipitation, and modelling of the basin water cycle. Based on the derived data and their scale and error, an expert system incorporating fuzzy logic is used for index-related erosion modelling. It is concluded that GIS integrated modelling can pave the way to sustainable landscape management.
OCCURRENCE OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER IN ALLUVIAL AQUIFERS FROM DELTA PLAINS, EASTERN INDIA: OPTIONS FOR SAFE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY (pp. 79-92)
aDivision of Land and Water Resources, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; bDepartment of Chemistry, University of West Bengal, India
Abstract: Arsenic contamination in groundwater used for drinking purposes has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. Exploitation of groundwater contaminated with arsenic within the delta plains in West Bengal has caused adverse health effects among the population within a span of 8-10 years. The sources of arsenic in natural water are a function of the local geology, hydrology and geochemical characteristics of the aquifers. The retention and mobility of different arsenic species are sensitive to varying redox conditions. The delta plains in West Bengal are characterized by a series of meander belts formed by the fluvial processes comprising different cycles of complete or truncated fining upward sequences (sand-silt-clay). The arseniferous groundwater belts are mainly located in the upper delta plain and in abandoned meander channels. Mineralogical investigations have established that arsenic in the silty clay as well as in the sandy layers occurs as coatings on mineral grains. Clayey sediments intercalated with sandy aquifers at depths between 20 and 80 m are reported as a major source of arsenic in groundwater. Integrated knowledge on geological, hydrological and geochemical characteristics of the multi-level aquifer system of the upper delta plain is therefore necessary in predicting the origin, occurrence and mobility of arsenic in groundwaterin West Bengal. This would also provide a basis for developing suitable low-cost techniques for safe drinking water supply in the region.
“AFTER ME, THE DELUGE”: UNCERTAINTY AND WATER POLICY IN ISRAEL (pp. 93-110)
aDepartment of Political Science; bDepartment of Geography, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Abstract: Israel’s water system is characterized by a very high degree of uncertainty, emanating from the semi-arid climatic position, and the dynamic population growth. The agricultural sector dominates water policy making, thereby giving preference to the sector that consumes roughly 70% of the available resources. Water for agriculture is priced too low, resulting in its inefficient use. This paper seeks to explain water policy making in Israel, as an attempt to cope with uncertainty. We show that the pattern has been to shift the burden of uncertainty from present consumers to future consumers. This pattern is explained by the following factors: the high vulnerability of Israel’s water system, due to uncertainty in both supply and demand; the inclination of elected policy makers to give preference to short-term objectives over long-term objectives; the accept- ance of uncertainty as a constraint rather than a policy variable; and the acceptance of a given level of agricultural activity as a permanent constraint.
POST-1949 DEVELOPMENT OF THE DUJIANGYAN IRRIGATION SYSTEM, SOUTH CHINA: BRIDGING A GAP BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND FARMERS (pp. 111-122)
Abstract: Bridging the gap between government and farmers is a major step in sound irrigation development, particularly in Monsoon Asia, where rice-based peasant economies are dominant. The present study highlights the development process of an irrigation system in South China since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. A multilayered governing system was found to play a key role in leading irrigation development to a balance between government’s policies and farmers’ demands. This Chinese experience suggests the need for deeper examination of the characteristics and structure of bodies responsible for irrigation system management in the presently centralized countries of Tropical M onsoon Asia.
RESEARCH ON SIMULATED OPTIMAL DECISION MAKING FOR A REGIONAL WATER RESOURCES SYSTEM (pp. 123-134)
Abstract: A rational exploitation policy for regional water resources is a fundamental condition for sustainable development of the regional economy and eco-environment. Faced with global change, rapid economic growth and population explosion, research on optimal decision making for a regional water resources system becomes much more important than ever before, especially in China today. In this paper, the plain area of Hanzhong Basin is used as a case study. Through systematic analysis of the regional water resources system, a system dynamics (SD) model is established. Based on the SD model, different exploitation scenarios are set up, and the optimal scenario and related exploitation policy are determined by multiscenario-multiobjectiveappraisal. The modelling and analysis methodology can be shared in other regions as well.