CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF EXISTING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS (pp. 103-112)
aYahia Abdel Mageed and Partners, Khartoum, Sudan; bInstitute of Behavioural Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
Abstract: The need for improved institutional arrangements has been recognized for many years; prior to Mar del Plata, and most recently at Dublin and Rio. Consensus seems to be emerging that a new global organization should be created from representatives of local, national, regional and international organizations embracing environmental, economic and political concerns. It would promote exchange of information and experience to define issues and methods deserving of attention, and would critically appraise previous actions in selected sectors and areas of water management. It should not duplicate existing organizations.
INSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN WATER RESOURCES (pp. 113-124)
Abstract: Agenda 21 calls for integrated management of water resources with catch- ments or sub-basins as the unit of management. There has been a steady evolution in the arrangements for cooperation in the management of international river basins over the last two centuries. Rather than aiming at a standardized set-up for all the international river basins, basin organizations can best be allowed to grow in phases according to the emerging needs of the respective basins. For healthy working of international basin organizations negotiations between the participating countries will be the principal thrust. Nevertheless, provision for arbitration for resolution of disputes will be desirable. The international non-governmental professional organizations have also steadily grown in different subject areas. They will be able to provide expert inputs into the working of the basin organizations. The river basin organizations and regional water management bodies will need a global common platform for exchanging their experiences and for developing common global strategies. A World Water Council can provide such an umbrella set-up with its General Assembly comprising international basin entities, regional bodies, international professional associations and the UN agencies dealing with water.
A WORLD WATER COUNCIL: ONE POSSIBLE MODEL (pp. 125-138)
aWorld Bank, NW, Washington DC, USA, formerly with Canadian International Development Agency, Hull, Canada; bWorld Energy Council, London, UK
Abstract: Existing international arrangements for cooperation in water resources are not adequate. The Dublin Conference proposed the consideration of a World Water Council. The World Energy Council could be one possible model for such a new Council. The functioning of the World Energy Council is described. Typical functions and activities of a World Water Council are discussed. An annual budget of US$2 million is likely to be adequate. It is somewhat unlikely that any existing water-related international organization can be transformed successfully into a World Water Council.
INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN WATER RESOURCES (pp. 139-146)
Abstract: Three papers were specially commissioned for a Special Session on ‘Institutional Arrangements for International Cooperation in Water Resources’ during the 8th World Congress on Water Resources in Cairo, Egypt, in November 1994. The Session also include a Panel discussion in which Presidents or senior officials from six major water-related professional associations made brief presentations on the desirability of establishing a World Water Council. This paper is a summary of the entire Special Sessio
TECHNO-POLITICAL DECISION MAKING FOR WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT: THE JORDAN RIVER WATERSHED (pp. 147-162)
aDepartment of Geography, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, USA; bNippon Koei Co., Ltd., Consulting Engineers, Research and Development Center, Tokyo, Japan
Abstract: Discussions on water resources development generally focus on a variety of technical options, often without considering the potential political repercussions of each option. This paper incorporates both technical and political considerations in a ‘techno- political’ decision-making framework. Water resources development alternatives are then examined to evaluate their respective priorities for development in Israel, Palestine and Jordan, which are the major riparians of the Jordan River. Particular account is taken of the Middle East peace negotiations, and consequent political changes. Each proposal is designed to provide incentives for sharing resources and benefits among the riparian states.
TECHNO-POLITICAL WATER AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT ALTERNATIVES IN THE DEAD SEA AND AQABA REGIONS (pp. 163-184)
aNippon Koei Co., Ltd. Consulting Engineers, Research and Development Center, Tokyo Japan; bAaron T. Wolf, Department of Geography, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, USA
Abstract: Water and energy will be key elements in any regional development schemes in arid regions, being the limiting factors for planned tourism/resorts, industry and commerce. Two regions may be particularly attractive for regional economic development planning: the Dead Sea region, including the territory of Israel, Palestine and Jordan; and the Aqaba/Eilat area, which includes Egypt, Israel, Jordan and Saudi Arabia. These two regions could act as showcases of cooperation between the countries of the Middle East. This study describes both technical and political priorities for water and energy development projects, including non-conventional alternatives, particularly proposed hydro-solar and seawater pumped-storage schemes with hydropowered reverse osmosis (RO). Technical and political implications of these projects are examined in a framework of inter-state regional economic cooperation.
RISK ASSESSMENT OF A WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM DURING DROUGHT (pp. 185-204)
Abstract: In this paper the feasibility of using risk analysis for the planning and operation of a water supply system is evaluated through a case study where limited water resources have to be shared by Fukuoka city and the small neighbouring communities when drought occurs. Actual data of water demand and water supply together with actual reservoir in flow data are used. An application of the method which analyses two existing water supply subsystems is presented. The possible situations, in which drought occurs or the water demand target increases, are simulated and the risk is calculated and analysed.
SEISMICITY INDUCED BY RESERVOIRS: ASWAN HIGH DAM (pp. 205-214)
aChairman, Water Research Center, Cairo, Egypt; bProfessor of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, CO, USA; cDirector, Construction, Soil Mechanics and Foundations Research Institute, Water Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
Abstract: Design, construction and operation of reservoirs take into consideration many environmental factors. One factor that has not been included in the siting and operation of most of these reservoirs is the effect of these reservoirs on seismic activity. Evidence indicates that the weight of water in the reservoirs may produce additional stresses on the subsurface stratum and can be the cause of earth tremors of various magnitudes. Raising water levels in reservoirs may also increase water pressures along nearby potential sliding surfaces (faults), thus decreasing the faults’ resistance to sliding that resists earthquakes. This paper presents a summary of seismic activity which is traced indirectly to the operation of the reservoirs. Included are some data on the impact of the Aswan High Dam on seismic activity. The data on some reservoirs show that seismicity can be correlated to the filling of the reservoir but not all seismic activity near reservoirs can be attributed to the reservoir itself.