THE GAP (SOUTH-EAST ANATOLIA PROJECT) AND WOMEN IN IRRIGATION (pp. 439-449)
Selahattin Erhan, South-East Anatolia Project Regional Development Administration, Ankara, Turkey, and Yeditepe University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Department of Political Science and International Relations, Istanbul, Turkey
Abstract: GAP is a globally recognized multi-sectoral, integrated project in Turkey, which aims at the overall socioeconomic development of south-east Anatolia. It covers approximately 10% of the country and includes two major rivers , the Euphrates and the Tigris, which have helped humanity throughout history develop several civilizations in the lands between and around them-commonly known as ‘the Fertile Crescent’ or Mesopotamia. Other than high dams, hydropower plants and irrigation schemes, the project is involved with a variety of socioeconomic domains from education, health and housing, to transportation, tourism and industry, in both urban and rural areas. In this way, it is expected to initiate changes that will affect Turkey as a whole. To maintain popular participation and sustainability in this governmentimposed project and to improve the status of women in the region, multi-purpose community centres (CATOM) are established in poor neighbourhoods of cities and in villages. CATOM, as an exclusively women’s organization for those aged 14 to 50, aims at raising the level of consciousness, education and training of women in income-generating activities so as to help them attain a higher status in society. At present, there are 17 CATOMs in the region, providing the women with the necessary knowledge and skills that the changes GAP has invoked require. As such, CATOMs present themselves as an avenue through which one will soon begin to see women actively involved in irrigation, which traditionally is ‘men’s job’ in the region. This project has just started and its success will further integrate women into the development process thereby increasing their social status as ‘trained professionals’ and ascertaining the sustainability of the irr igation scheme.
CONTRIBUTION OF WOMEN TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN LATIN AMERICA (pp. 451-459)
Cecilia Tortajada, Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigación y Estudios sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo (CIIEMAD), IPN, Tlalnepantla, Estado de México, México
Abstract: Much has been said about women’s participation in the different fields of development, water resources being one of them. Both water resources management and gender issues are complex, and their analyses and solutions would necessarily reflect regional conditions, institutional views, societal practices, and cultural backgrounds. Historically, women have been primarily responsible for the provision and management of water at the household and community levels. However, their presence at the managerial and decision-making levels has been comparatively more recent. This paper summarizes the main findings and results of a workshop convened in Mexico City to analyse the contributions of women at the planning, management and decision-making levels.
WOMEN IN WATER-RE LATED PROCESSES IN LATIN AMERICA: CURRENT SITUATION AND RESEARCH AND POLICY PROPOSALS (pp. 461-471)
María Nieves Rico, Women and Development Unit, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Santiago, Chile
Abstract: This paper explores the principal themes linking the relation of gender with the water issue, either as a resource or as a service, centred in the situation of poverty which affects a significant portion of the female population in Latin America, especially in issues such as access to drinking water, community actions carried out , and methodologies elaborated in order to increase the active participation of women. In addition, new areas are considered where issues of gender analysis are starting to be applied, such as the impact of the global processes on public policies, water rights, the investments and infrastructure carried out , and the access and participation of women in the training of human resources and the processes of adoption of decisions in the sector. Finally, some central aspects for generating the mainstreaming process of the gender issue within the social, political, economic and environmental problems of water are presented.
CONTRIBUTIONS OF WOMEN IN THE FIELD OF WATER RESOURCES (pp. 473-479)
Rita Schmidt Sudma, Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, USA
Abstract: This paper for the Stockholm Water Symposium’s Workshop Eight on the Contributions of Women in the Field of Water Resources focuses on the role of women in water management positions, public interest groups and environmental groups in California and the western USA. The levels of women involved in the decision-making process involving water issues is analysed. The role of women as consumers of water and guardians of their families is discussed. A plan to interest young American women in careers in water is also explored. My research and 18 years of experience in the water resources field with the Water Education Foundation has led me to the conclusion that, while American women are moving into water management and political positions, perhaps their greatest influence will come from their unofficial positions as family caregivers and managers. In their daily lives they must make decisions and choices for their families involving natural resources such as water. In certain instances, the se decisions have led to specific policy changes.
HOUSEWIVES, URBAN PROTEST AND WATER POLICY IN MONTERREY, MEXICO (pp. 481-497)
Vivienne Bennett, College of Arts and Sciences, California State University-San Marcos, San Marcos, USA
Abstract: This article analyses a major water crisis in a Third World city, and its resolution. The city is Monterrey, Mexico. The crisis occurred in the 1970s and 1980s, and its resolution came in the late 1980s and 1990s. This study makes the following key points. (1) Water infrastructure development occurs within micro-as well as macroeconomic and political contexts. (2) Equitable infrastructure planning can occur only when the political contexts are favourable, even if the economic contexts are not. (3) Citizens who are not part of the formal decision-making structure (such as low-income women) can influence policy developmentand prioritization of investments for hydraulic infrastructure.
THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: THE TANZANIA CASE (pp. 499-504)
Benedict P. Michael, Ministry of Water, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Abstract: The case of Tanzania regarding the role of women in various aspects of water resources management is typical of many other African countries having a similar cultural background. In most African communities culture dictates that women are subordinates to men and, hence, are socially marginalized to the domestic chores which, thoug h directly related to the use of water, give them no room for decision making on how to utilize this resource. The various decision making levels related to water resources management in Tanzania depict a conspicuous gender imbalance which is a product of a strong cultural background biased against women. This negative male attitude in Tanzania has seriously undermined the developmentpotential of most women who also engage themselves in non-domestic economic ventures at an entrepreneurial level. Through various approaches, the government is now uprooting the main sources of this socially negative situation in Tanzania.
INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT BY URBAN POOR WOMEN: A NIGERIAN SLUM EXPERIENCE (pp. 505-512)
Bolu Enabora, M.K.C. Sridhara and I.O. Olasehab
aDivision of Environmental Health; bDivision of Health Promotion and Education, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Abstract: A study was carried out on the integrated water management in an urban poor community in Ibadan, Nigeria. This community with a population of 20 938 is located in the Koloko-Aiyekale area under the North East Local Government occupying an area of 0.97 km2. They engage mostly in trading, farming and some have taken up the civil service and teaching professions. Shallow wells are their main water source supplemented by rain, tap and other commercial sources. Sanitation is poor, characterized by spread of wastewater on streets and unkempt open drains, and streets littered with refuse and animal dung. An intervention study covering a period of over 18 months was undertaken involving 324 women to improve the water quality, to lay a hygienic drainage system, and to use the wastewater for backyard or community farming. Simple storage of water for prolonged periods, solar radiation of stored water, and pot chlorination of wells were tried for the improvement of water quality. The merits of these methods were assessed and related to the community’s perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and practices. The women formed a ten-member water committee and examined various feasible solutions. Solar radiation for water quality improvement ,drainage improvement through digging deeper and periodic cleaning, and community farming using the drainage water were finally adopted and practised. The produce obtained from the farming activities improved their income generation, nutritional needs and general sustainability.
CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED REGION BY NEPALE SE WOMEN LEADING TO ENHANCEMENT OF WATER POTENTIAL (pp. 513-525)
Pushpa Lata Shrestha (Vaidya), Shivapuri Integrated Watershed Development Project (SIWDP), Maharajganj Chakrapath, Nepal
Abstract: Within the three ecological belts of the Nepalese Himalayas, the hill has been identified as the extensive horizon of excessive environmental degradation, poverty and underemployed population pressure. The urgency of watershed management and identification of the grass-roots people as ‘the prime actor’ have now been recorded. Conservation programmes have been undertaken: leasehold and grazing development interlinks management with promotion of living status of the poor, and the community forest aims at forest management through user’ group. Women’s management role in the Shivapuri Watershed, which supplies water to Kathmandu where half the urban population of Nepal are located, has been noted, pointing out the impact of urban influence in resource management. Essential measures have been sought to enhance women’s capabilities in management undertakings.
TRIBAL WOMEN IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH WATERSHED PROGRAMMES IN VIDARBHA (pp. 527-535)
Varghese V. Devasia, Tirpude College of Social Work, Nagpur University, Civil Lines, Sadar, India
Abstract: The present participatory research was conducted among the Gond tribes of Vidarbha. For centuries, due to lack of political participation, depletion of forest wealth, degeneration of their economic system and the aridity of their land these tribes, especially the women, became the victims of exploitation. Community Action for Development (CAD), an NGO working with the tribal women, convinced them that watershed programmes implemented with people’s participation had an inherent quality and strength to alleviate the ir poverty. The women of ten villages participated voluntarily to achieve this goal. They jointly took decision to dig a number of small ponds and construct numerous check dams to store rain water. The joint endeavours gradually helped them to realize that improved ways of water management could be imparted through folklore, songs, riddles, proverbs, etc. The watershed programmes in all the villages became means to harness their resources and realize their felt needs. It also helped them to develop a sense of unity, power, dignity and self-reliance. The watershed programme became a tool for the tribal women to take control of the ir social milieu which affected their lives. The process provided them with an opportunity to empower themselves.
SAFE DRINKING WATER AND ITS ACQUISITION: RURAL WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN WATER MANAGEMENT IN MAHARASHTRA, INDIA (pp. 537-546)
Leelamma Devasia, Tirpude College of Social Work, Nagpur University, Civil Lines, Sadar, India
Abstract: The present study was on the participation of women in 10 villages which had a perennial problem of adequate and safe drinking water. These remote villages are situated in the arid region of Vidarbha in the state of Maharashtra, India. The endeavour to have safe and sufficient drinking water helped the women in fighting not only against poverty but also oppression, exploitation and human rights violation. Discussion and dialogue with men and women of the rural communities were the main methods used for data collection. The participatory research helped the women to realize that they too could be equal to men and advocates of rural sustainable development . The street plays and protests organized by the women and the consistent struggle for water created strong community awareness. The search for safe drinking water and water management by women had an all-pe rvading effect in all villages. The women also initiated programmes for social forestry and rain water harvesting to protect the environment. For the first time in the recent history of th se villages, there was sufficient safe drinking water in seven villages during the summer months of 1997.
Expanding the Frontiers of Irrigation Management Research-Results of Research and Development at the International Irrigation Management Institute, 1984 to 1995, Douglas J. Merrey, International Irrigation Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1997